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Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation

Definition
Untitled Document

This property has the value 'yes' when a minimal negative answer to a neutral, information-seeking polar question can consist of the marker or particle for sentential negation alone.


Examples:

  1. English has the value 'no' for this property, since the sentential negation cannot be used on its own as a negative answer:
    • Question: Do you speak Swahili?
    • Answer: *Not.

    • Negative Declarative: I do not speak Swahili.
  2. Thai has the value 'yes' for this property, since the sentential negation can be used on its own as a negative answer:
    • Question: Nát khàp rót mǎy
        Nath drive car Q
        "Does Nath drive?"
      Answer: mây      
        not      
        "No."
      Negative declarative: Nát mây khàp rót
        Nath not drive car
        "Nath doesn't drive."
Contributed by: Anders Holmberg
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
   Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
   Amharic No Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek Yes Richard Faure
   Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bambara No Hilda Koopman
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
+ Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Q: Mudàá a-n-lámb ɛ́ A: tɔ́/hɛ́ɛ́ní *béé
  Gloss: Q: woman SM-PST-cook Q A: no/no/never *NEG
  Translation: Q: 'Has the woman cooked?' A: 'no' *not
  Comment: No, since the sentential negation cannot stand alone as a negative answer.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Mudáà a-n-làmb ɓéé kón
  Gloss: woman SM-PST-cook NEG rice
  Translation: 'The woman has not cooked rice.'
  Comment: This is an instance of sentential negation.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: A: nei ngo-zo me? A: mou.
  Gloss: Q: you hungry-PFV Q A: not-have
  Translation: Q: Are you hungry? A: No.
  Comment: “mou” is a existential negative marker.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan Yes Victoria Mateu
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   English No Craig Sailor
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   Faroese Yes Hjalmar Páll Petersen
+ Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
  Words: Tulee-ko Anna? Ei
  Gloss: NEG-2SG-Q you come? NEG-3SG
  Translation: Is Anna coming? No.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   French No Vincent Homer
   Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
   Garifuna No Pam Munro
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German No Viola Schmitt
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek No Giorgos Spathas
  Words: Q: Ex-i erthi i Ana? A: *Dhen.
  Gloss: Q: has-3.SG come the.SS.NOM Ann A: Not.
  Translation: Q: Has Ann arrived? A: No. (lit 'not')
  Contributor: Giorgos Spathas
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Metin Bagriacik
   Greek (Homer) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hausa No Russell Schuh
+ Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
  Words: hixnasta et ha a'gvanyiot la makrer ?
  Gloss: put+in-you.m acc the tomatoes to-the fridge ? lo
  Translation: 'Did you put the tomatoes in the fridge' No
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: "Hiskanti la'asot leka koh?" Wayomer: "Lo" (Num 22,30)
  Gloss: lo.NEG PRTCL
  Translation: "was I ever wont to do so unto thee?". And he said: "Nay"
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   imbabura quichua Yes UCLA Linguistics 210
   Italian No Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English Yes Stephanie Durrleman
   Japanese No Jun Yashima
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
   Korean No Grace Lee
   Kuot No Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) Yes Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
+ Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: venitne homo ad te? Non!
  Gloss: come.PRS.3.SG+.Q man.NOM.SG to.PRP you.ACC.SG? No
  Translation: Is the man not coming to you? No!
  Comment: Plaut.PSeud 4,6 (1068)
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo
  Words: et ait ad me dicens 'numquid nescis quid sunt haec?' et dixi 'non, domine'
  Gloss: and answer:PRS.3SG to PERS.PR.1SG:ACC say:PTCP:NOM INT.PRT ignore.PRS.SG what:NOM be:PRS.3PL these:NOM and say:PFV.1SG no master:VOC
  Translation: 'Then he replied asking me "Don't you know what these are?" and I replied "No, my lord" '
  Comment: (Zachariah 4) this example is however not a plain question, but rather a polar question biased towards a negative answer (since it is introduced by 'numquid') - Biblia Sacra Vulgata, 4th cent. CE.
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
  Words: sit autem sermo vester "est est non non"
  Gloss: be:SBJV.3PL then word:NOM your:NOM be:PRS.3SG be:PRS.3SG not not
  Translation: 'But let your statement be, "Yes, yes" or "No, no" '
  Comment: (Matth. 5.37) - Biblia Sacra Vulgata, 4th cent. CE
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Maasai (Kisongo) Yes Hilda Koopman
   Malagasy No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam Yes Mythili Menon
+ Mandarin Yes Arthur Wang
  Words: Q: ni e-le ma? A: bu.
  Gloss: Q: you hungry-PFV Q A: NEG
  Translation: Q: Are you hungry? A: No.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang Yes Bebey Théodore
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
   Nepali NA Mark Donohue
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
   Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Old English No ---
   Old French No Heather Burnett
   Old Norse No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Old Saxon No George Walkden
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: O –lomaloma-nga lusungu? tawe (Si-e-lomaloma-nga lusungu tawe.)
  Gloss: Do you speak English? tawe (=no) /*si / *si tawe
  Translation: Do you speak English? No.
  Comment: tawe can be so used (but not si, nor si tawe)
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Você fala português?
  Gloss: Ele fala português? Nao
  Translation: he speak.3SG portuguese ? Not
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian No Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Denis Paperno
   Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
  Words: A: ki arrwàu Màrju? B: *nun
  Gloss: A: what arrived Mario B: not
  Translation: A: Has Mario arrived? B: No
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Spanish Yes Victoria Mateu
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
   Taiwanese Southern Min Yes Arthur Wang
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: k' arrivitə Lenə? - No
  Gloss: what arrived Elena? - not
  Translation: did Elena arrive? - No
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai Yes Peter Jenks
   Tukang Besi Yes Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Deniz Ozyildiz
   Twi No Cansada Martin
+ Vietnamese Yes Binh Ngo
  Words: Lan không thích ăn táo.
  Gloss: Lan not like eat apple
  Translation: "Lan doesn't like to eat apple."
  Contributor: Binh Ngo
  Words: Lan có thích ăn táo không?
  Gloss: Lan Q like eat apple Q
  Translation: "Does Lan like to eat apples?
  Contributor: Binh Ngo
  Words: không
  Gloss: not
  Translation: "no"
  Contributor: Binh Ngo
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian No Hrayr Khanjian
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba
   Zulu No Claire Halpert