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Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle

Definition
Untitled Document Consider the following conversation carried out in your language:
  • Interlocutor A says to B: "You told me earlier that your brother was going to Paris. But now I see him here. Did he not go to Paris after all?"

How does B answer if he wants to say that his brother DID go to Paris, contradicting the negative expectation of the question.
Does the language use an affirmative particle AND a special (polarity) particle in this context?

This property has the value 'yes' if the polarity reversing answer to a negative question consist of the standard affirmative particle and a special polarity particle.


A 'yes' value for this property is compatible with a 'yes' value for Q21ANegQ.


Examples:

  1. Dutch has the value 'yes' for this property. Compare the answer to the neutral (non-negative) question and the negative question:
    • Neutral question: is je broer naar Parijs gegaan
        is your brother to Paris gone
        "Did your brother go to Paris?"
      Answer: ja
        Yes
        "Yes."
    • Negative question: is je broer (uiteindelijk toch maar) niet naar Parijs gegaan
        is your brother (in.the.end PRT PRT) NEG to Paris gone
        "Did your brother not go to Paris (after all)?"
      Answer: ja-wel (hij is wel naar Parijs gegaan)        
        Yes-PRT (he is AFF to Paris gone)        
        "Yes (he did go to Paris)."
  2. English has the value 'no' for this property, as there is no special particle that must be used in combination with the affirmative particle to contradict the negative expectation of the question:
    • Neutral question: Did he go to Paris?
    • Answer: Yes.

    • Negative question: Did he not go to Paris after all?
    • Answer: Yes, he did. *yesso/*yesdid
Contributed by: Anders Holmberg and Craig Sailor
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words: Q: Nuk ka ardhur Ana? A: Po, (po) si jo.
  Gloss: Q: not has come Ann-the(NOM) A: Yes, (but) how no
  Translation: Q: Has Ann not arrived. A: Yes (she has arrived).
  Comment: Polarity reversing '(po) si jo' is compatible with the standard affirmative particle 'po'. Notice that the two do not form an intonational unit.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   Amharic No Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek NA Cristina Guardiano
   Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
+ Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Q: Q: ɓàá mudaá a-ŋ-kɛ̀ há ɓéé í ɓom ɛ A: ŋ̀ŋ́ (proᵢ aᵢ-ŋ-kɛ̀ há ɓéé)
  Gloss: Q: Q woman SM-PST1-go ha NEG LOC market Q A: yes (pro SM-PST1-go ha NEG)
  Translation: Q: 'Did the woman not go to the market?' A: 'Yes he did not go.'
  Comment: Note that the parenthetical sentence is optional.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: A: is je broer niet naar Parijs gegaan? B. jawel. (hij is wel naar Parijs gegaan
  Gloss: Is your brother not to Paris gone? B. Yeswel. (he is wel to Paris gone)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   English No Craig Sailor
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg
   French No Vincent Homer
   galician No Naír García
   georgian Yes Lea Nash
   German No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Giorgos Spathas
  Words: Q: Dhen ex-i erthi i Ana? A: Ne, ki omos.
  Gloss: Q: not has-3.SG come the.SG.NOM Ann A: Yes, and but
  Translation: Q: Has Ann not arrived. A: Yes (she has arrived).
  Comment: Polarity reversing 'ki omos' is compatible with the standard affirmative particle 'ne'. Notice that the two do not form an intonational unit.
  Contributor: Giorgos Spathas
   Greek (Cappadocian) NA Metin Bagriacik No examples in textual record
   Greek (Homer) NA Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) No Io Manolessou
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hausa No Russell Schuh
+ Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
  Words: ken, hu ken nasa (the second ken is stressed)
  Gloss: yes, he yes go
  Translation: yes, he DID go
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: De (igen), elment.
  Gloss: but (yes) away-went.3sg
  Translation: Yes, he did leave (contrary to what you are suggesting)
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Italian No Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Stephanie Durrleman
   Japanese No Jun Yashima
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
   Korean No Grace Lee
   Kuot No Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Malagasy No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam No Mythili Menon
   Mandarin No Arthur Wang
   Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Speaker A: Ngba Musa gi bise a? Speaker B: Eba. Musa gi bise ni:.
  Gloss: Speaker A: Q Musa eat hen NEG. Speaker B: Yes. Musa eat hen emphatic particle
  Translation: Speaker A: Did Musa not eat the hen? Speaker B: Yes. Musa DID INDEED eat the hen.'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ Nweh Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words:  Njikem a kÈ te npfEt akendong bÓ kÓO
  Gloss: N. Agr P-l Neg eat plantains Neg EQ (=Ev(idential) Qestion))
  Translation: 'Didn't Njikem eat plantains?'
  Comment: Nkemnji glosses the question marker kOO as an evidential question marker. see next example for polarity reversing answer. (Njikem (1995: p.157)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: ?mhm
  Gloss:  no yes (Tones ?m-M hm (HL on M)
  Translation: he did! This form is decomposed. Nkemnji glosses it as no.yes. The tones of the particle above seem to be MHL which are the tones of Nkemnji likens this strategy to French si. It depends on the presupposition (see Nkemnji p. for the different scenarios)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Old English Yes Willem Koopman
   Old Saxon NA George Walkden No examples in textual record.
   Pashto No David Pate
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Nina Radkevich
   Sandawe No Helen Eaton
   Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Spanish No Victoria Mateu
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Volkan Tümer
   Twi No Cansada Martin
+ Vietnamese Yes Jimmy Nguyen
  Words: Anh không mua sách này à? / Có chứ.
  Gloss: You NEG buy book DEM EMPHASIS? / Yes PARTICLE
  Translation: You didn't buy this book? / Of course, I did.
  Contributor: Jimmy Nguyen
   West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman the particle 'ba' (=but) is prefixed to the answer
   Western Armenian No Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolof Yes Mariame Sy
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba