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w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article

Definition
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    Indefinite singular count nouns in object position

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are three property definitions for indefinite singular count nouns in object position:

    can be 'bare', must have an 'article', can have an 'article'


    Plus an additional one

    Indefinite singular count nouns in object position may have a plural-like reading


Indefinite singular count nouns in object position can have an article


This property is set to 'yes' if an unmodified, indefinite, morphologically singular count noun in object position can (but does not have to):

  1. occur with an article (e.g. the indefinite article, the numeral one)
  2. (for languages without articles but with classifiers, noun classes, case, adpositional endings, etc ) exhibit structural alternation with noun phrases containing:
    1. a definite singular count noun in object position, or
    2. an indefinite plural noun in object position

Elicitation context

Yesterday I bought _____ book (first mention of book, singular, non-specific)


[ More contexts ]

Additional instructions

  1. The indefinite singular count noun must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements, etc)
  2. The sentence is affirmative, NOT negative, interrogative, etc (if you notice any difference between affirmative and negative/interrogative contexts, please comment, or contact us)
  3. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. abstract nouns (John finds love everywhere)
    2. collective nouns (Italy changed government last week, I saw people at the party)
    3. singular nouns of chemical elements or other physical entities (I put oxygen in the tank)
    4. singular nouns of arts and sciences (I love chemistry)
    5. home
  4. If there is more than one object position in your language, test this property for each position

Examples

1.

Modern Greek is 'yes' for this property: indefinite singular count nouns in object position may have an indefinite article, but can also be bare (Alexopoulou and Folli 2011, ex26a, p.18).

  • dhiavase efimeridha
    read.3SG newspaper
    " S/he read a newspaper "

2.

Wolof is 'yes' for this property: indefinite singular count nouns in object position can either be bare (i.a) or occur with indefinite markers (i.b and c; Tamba, Torrence, Zimmermann 2013: 904, ex 32).

i.a

  • Xadi gis-na sàcc
    Xadi see-FIN thief
    " Xadi saw a thief/a certain thief "

i.b

  • Xadi gis-na a-b sàcc
    Xadi see-FIN INDEF-CL thief
    " Xadi saw a thief "

i.c

  • Xadi gis-na b-enn sàcc
    Xadi see-FIN CL-one thief
    " Xadi saw a certain thief "

3.

English is 'no' for this property: indefinite singular count nouns in object position must have an indefinite article (i). They cannot be bare (ii).

    1. I met a dog
    2. I read a book
    3. I met a teacher
    1. *I met dog
    2. *I read book
    3. *I met teacher

4.

Basque is 'no' for this property: indefinite singular count nouns in object position must have an indefinite article (bat), homophonous with the numeral one.

i.a

  • liburu bat irakurri dut
    book one read AUX
    " I read a book "

They cannot be bare.

i.b

  • * liburu irakurri dut
    book read AUX
    " I read a book "

5.

Hebrew is 'no' for this property: indefinite singular count nouns in object position are bare.

i.

  • karati sefer
    I.read book
    " I read a book "

ii.

  • pagashti ish
    I.met man
    " I met a man "

iii.

  • raiti kelev
    I.saw dog
    " I saw a dog "

6.

Russian is 'no' for this property: indefinite singular count nouns in object position are bare. A singular count noun with accusative case is compatible with both an indefinite and a definite interpretation, thus counting as bare.

i.a

  • Ja vstretila sobaku
    I.NOM meet.pst.fem.sg dog.acc.sg
    " I met a dog " (can also mean I met the dog)

i.b

  • Ja vstretil uCitelja
    I.NOM meet.pst.masc.sg teacher.acc.sg
    " I met a teacher " (can also mean I met the teacher)

i.c

  • Ja proCitala knigu
    I.NOM read.pst.fem.sg book.acc.sg
    " I read a book " (can also mean I read the book)
Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ Akan-twi Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Me fa -a nsa no
  Gloss: 1SG take –Pst wine Def
  Translation: ‘I took the wine’
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Ancient Greek No Cristina Guardiano
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: camjat ngo maai-zo (yat) bun syu
  Gloss: yesterdat I buy-PFV (one) CLF book
  Translation: Yesterday I bought a book.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
+ Croatian No Daniela Culinovic
  Words: Jucer sam susrela studenta.
  Gloss: yesterday have.PRS.1SG meet.PST.PTCP. FEM student.ACC.SG
  Translation: Yesterday I met a/the student yesterday.
  Contributor: Daniela Culinovic
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: Irten enas antras.
  Gloss: Come.PST.3SG INDF man
  Translation: A man came.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
+ English No the property authors
  Words: I met a dog
  Contributor: the property authors
  Words: *I met dog
  Contributor: the property authors
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
+ Farsi Yes Natasha Schimka
  Words: Ye ketâb-i-ro khari-dam
  Gloss: One book-INDF-RA buy.1SG.PST
  Translation: I bought a book
  Contributor: Natasha Schimka
   French No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
+ French (Ivorian) No Akpoué Josué
  Words: J' ai mangé *(du) chien
  Gloss: I have eaten du chien
  Comment: No du/del/ etc in Ivorian French.
  Contributor: Akpoué Josué
   Garifuna No Pam Munro
   German No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Giorgos Spathas
  Words: Diavaz-o (mia) efimeridh-a.
  Gloss: read-1.SG.IMP INDF.SG.ACC newspaper-SG.ACC
  Translation: I am reading a newspaper.
  Contributor: Giorgos Spathas
   Greek (Calabria) No Cristina Guardiano
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: eci ire ena neka (Dawkins 1916: 334)
  Gloss: DIST see.PST.3SG INDF woman.SG.ACC
  Translation: there she saw a woman
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Pontic) No Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Hebrew No Assif Am-David
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: zoveach hasse 'oref keleb (Is 66,3)
  Gloss: who salughters for a sacrifice.PTCP the-lamb.ART-OBJ (he who) breaks the neck of.PTCP dog.OBJ
  Comment: he that sacrificeth a lamb, as if he cut off a dog's neck
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
+ Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: Tegnap vettem ne'ha'ny kalapot.
  Gloss: yesterday buy.PAST.1SG hat-ACC
  Translation: yesterday I bought some/a few hats.
  Comment: I wouldn't call "ne'ha'ny" an article.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   imbabura quichua Yes Pam Munro
+ Italian No Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ho visto un cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen a dog
  Translation: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: * ho visto cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen dog
  Translation: Intended: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Korean No Shin-Sook Kim
   Kusaal No Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo still only rare and isolated examples during the stage considered here
  Words: et videns fici arborem unam secus viam
  Gloss: and see:PTCP fig:GEN tree:ACC one:ACC along road:ACC
  Translation: 'and seeing a fig tree along the road'
  Comment: (Matthaeus 21:19) the use of 'unus' one without a clear cardinal value, as in this example, is still rare - NP in the example contains a genitive - Biblia Sacra Vulgata, 4th cent. CE.
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Hilda Koopman
   Mandarin Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   nda'nda' No Bertille Baron
+ Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
  Words: I går kjøpte jeg en sykkel
  Gloss: yesterday buy-past I bike
  Translation: Yesterday I bought a bike
  Comment: Indefinite singular count nouns with articles can have a specific reading.
  Contributor: Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Mi ka wosika nini
  Gloss: 1.sg write letter one
  Translation: I wrote a letter.
  Comment: Can also be interpreted literally as: 'I wrote one letter.'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Old English Yes Willem Koopman
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden
  Words: thar mugun gi ênan man sehan
  Gloss: there may you.PL INDF.ACC man see.INF
  Translation: there you may see a man
  Comment: (Heliand 4535)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al Yes Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
+ Russian No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
  Words: Ja vstretila sobaku
  Gloss: I.NOM meet.pst.fem.sg dog.acc.sg
  Translation: From the property definition. ("I met a dog " (can also mean I met the dog)
  Comment: (to verify: dog cannot be in the geniitive. )
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Samoan No Hilda Koopman
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec Yes George Aaron Broadwell
+ Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
  Words: vìtti nu kàni
  Gloss: saw.1S a dog
  Translation: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: *vìtti kàni
  Gloss: saw.1S dog
  Translation: Intended: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Spanish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
+ Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so kumpratə na skamorzə
  Gloss: I.am bought a mozzarella
  Translation: I bought mozzarella
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *so cumpratə skamorzə
  Gloss: I.am bought mozzarella
  Translation: I bought mozzarella
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Sozen Ozkan
   Vata No Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
+ Wolof Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
  Words: Xadi gis-na a-b sàcc
  Gloss: Xadi see-FIN INDEF-CL thief
  Translation: Xadi saw a thief
  Comment: see property definition. (Tamba, Torrence, Zimmermann 2013: 904, ex 32))
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen