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w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare

Definition
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    Indefinite singular count nouns in object position

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are three property definitions for indefinite singular count nouns in object position:

    can be 'bare', must have an 'article', can have an 'article'


    Plus an additional one

    Indefinite singular count nouns in object position may have a plural-like reading


Indefinite singular count nouns in object position can be bare


This property is set to 'yes' if an unmodified, indefinite, morphologically singular count noun in object position can be bare:


A bare noun phrase, for the purposes of this set of properties,

  1. lacks an article (e.g. the indefinite article, the numeral one)
  2. (for languages without articles but with classifiers, noun classes, case, adpositional endings, etc) exhibits no structural alternation with noun phrases containing:
    1. a definite singular count noun in object position, or
    2. an indefinite plural noun in object position

Elicitation context

Yesterday I bought _____ book (first mention of book, singular, non-specific)


[ More contexts ]

Additional instructions

  1. The indefinite singular count noun must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements, etc)
  2. The sentence is affirmative, NOT negative, interrogative, etc (if you notice any difference between affirmative and negative/interrogative contexts, please comment, or contact us)
  3. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. abstract nouns (John finds love everywhere)
    2. collective nouns (Italy changed government last week, I saw people at the party)
    3. singular nouns of chemical elements or other physical entities (I put oxygen in the tank)
    4. singular nouns of arts and sciences (I love chemistry)
    5. home
  4. If there is more than one object position in your language, test this property for each position

Examples

1.

Hebrew is 'yes' for this property: indefinite singular (non specific) count nouns in object position can be bare.

i.

  • karati sefer
    I.read book
    " I read a book "

ii.

  • pagashti ish
    I.met man
    " I met a man "

iii.

  • raiti kelev
    I.saw dog
    " I saw a dog "

2.

Hindi is 'yes' for this property: indefinite singular (non specific) count nouns in object position can be bare.

  • mâîne kitaab padhii (the d has a dot below. Html code: U+1E0D)
    I.ERG book read.PAST.FEM
    " I read a book "

3.

Hungarian is 'yes' for this property: indefinite singular (non specific) count nouns in object position can be bare.

i.

  • olvastam könyvet
    read.1SG book.ACC
    " I read a book "

ii.

  • látok kutyát
    see.PRST.1SG.INDEF dog.ACC
    " I see a dog "

4.

Wolof is 'yes' for this property: indefinite singular (non specific) count nouns in object position can be bare (i) (Tamba, Torrence, Zimmermann 2013: 904, ex 32b).

  • Xadi gis-na sàcc
    Xadi see-FIN thief
    " Xadi saw a thief "
Comment: a specific interpretation (e.g. a certain thief ) is also possible.

5.

Mandarin Chinese is 'yes' for this property: indefinite singular (non specific) count nouns in object position can be bare (Cheng and Sybesma 1999: 510, ex 1a).

  • Hufei mai shu qu le
    Hufei buy book go SFP
    " Hufey went to buy a book "

6.

Russian is 'no' for this property: indefinite singular (non specific) count nouns in object position can be bare (ia). A singular count noun with accusative case is compatible with both an indefinite and a definite interpretation, thus counting as bare.

i.

  • Ja vstretila sobaku
    I.NOM meet.pst.fem.sg dog.acc.sg
    " I met a dog " (can also mean I met the dog)

ii.

  • Ja vstretil uCitelja
    I.NOM meet.pst.masc.sg teacher.acc.sg
    " I met a teacher " (can also mean I met the teacher)

iii.

  • Ja proCitala knigu
    I.NOM read.pst.fem.sg book.acc.sg
    " I read a book " (can also mean I read the book)

7.

Modern Greek is 'yes' for this property: indefinite singular (non specific) count nouns in object position can be bare (Alexopoulou and Folli 2011: ex 26a, p.18).

  • dhiavase efimeridha
    read.3sg newspaper
    " S/he read a newspaper "

8.

English is 'no' for this property: indefinite singular count nouns in object position are never bare (i.a, ii.a and iii.a): they require the indefinite article a (i.b, ii.b, iii.b).

    1. *I met dog
    2. I met a dog
    1. *I read book
    2. I read a book
    1. *I met teacher
    2. I met a teacher

9.

Basque is 'no' for this property: indefinite singular count nouns in object position can not be bare.

i.a

  • * liburu irakurri dut
    book read AUX
    " I read a book "

They require an indefinite article bat, which is homophonous with the numeral one.

i.b

  • liburu bat irakurri dut
    book one read AUX
    " I read a book "
Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ Akan-twi Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Kofi wɔ kraman
  Gloss: Kofi have sg.dog
  Translation: Kofi have sg.dog
  Comment: ‘Kofi has a dog.’
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   American Sign Language Yes Natasha Abner
   Amharic Yes Hilda Koopman
   Ancient Greek Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
   Bambara Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: yaaní, mɛ bí- ɓɔmá ŋ́údú
  Gloss: 1.yesterday I PST2-meet 1.student
  Translation:  ‘Yesterday I met a student’
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: yaaní mɛ bí- tɛ́hɛ́ ŋgwɔ́ í wɔ́m wɛ̂m
  Gloss: 1.yesterday I PST2-see 9.dog LOC 3.garden 3.my
  Translation: Yesterday I saw a dog in my garden’
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Mɛ gwě ŋgǒŋ ni matila, ndí tɔwadá mɛ yé ŋgi leba
  Gloss: I have need of secretary but not one I be not yet find
  Translation: I need a secretary, but haven’t found one yet
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: í mboŋ i i- ń- la nɔ́l ndʒɔ́k í ndék ŋgeda
  Gloss: AUG 9.poison 9.DEM 9.SM-PRS-can kill 9.elephant LOC some 9.time
  Translation: That poison can kill an elephant in a short period of time
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Johánɛs a- ń- la núŋûl básko ínyuú manût mátán
  Gloss: 1.John 1.SM-PRS-can sell 9.bike for 6.minutes 6.five
  Translation: Johannes can sell a bike in 5 minutes
  Comment: (interesting use of for).
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ Basque No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
  Words:  * liburu irakurri dut
  Gloss: book read AUX
  Translation:  I read a book
  Comment: from the property definition
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: camjat ngo maai-zo syu
  Gloss: yesterdat I buy-PFV book
  Translation: Yesterday I bought a book.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro
+ Croatian Yes Daniela Culinovic
  Words: Zelim kupiti auto, ali jos nisam pronasla jedan
  Gloss: want.PRS.1SG buy.INF car.ACC.SG but still not find.PST.PTCP.FEM one.ACC.SG
  Translation: I want to buy a car but I still haven't found one.
  Contributor: Daniela Culinovic
   Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: zīkī mu̍kɔ̀ flù zrī
  Gloss: yesterday moko buy.PST fish
  Translation: yesterday Moko bought (a ) fish
  Comment: ALS4 workshop 2016
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
+ Dutch No Hilda Koopman
  Words: *Marie kan in vijf minuten fiets verkopen.
  Gloss: Mary can in 5 minutes bike sell.INF
  Translation: intended: Mary can sell a bike in five minutes
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ English No the property authors
  Words: I met a dog
  Contributor: the property authors
  Words: I met a dog
  Contributor: the property authors
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
+ Farsi Yes Natasha Schimka
  Words: Ye ketâb khari-dam
  Gloss: One book buy-1SG.PST
  Translation: I bought a book
  Contributor: Natasha Schimka
   French No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
+ French (Ivorian) Yes Akpoué Josué
  Words: J' ai mangé chien
  Gloss: I have eaten dog
  Translation: I ate dog
  Contributor: Akpoué Josué
   Garifuna Yes Pam Munro
   German No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Giorgos Spathas
  Words: Diavaz-o efimeridh-a.
  Gloss: read-1.SG.IMP newspaper-SG.ACC
  Translation: I am reading a newspaper.
  Comment: Bare indefinite singular count nouns in object position are licensed in two cases: (a) when the predicate describes an 'institutionalized activity' (see Dayal 2011 for similar restrictions in cases of incorporation and Gehrke&Lekakou 2013 for cases of Preposition+Determiner drop in Greek as in Pa-o sinema/ go-1.SG.IMP cinema.ACC / 'I'm going to the cinema' next to Pa-o sto sinema/ go-1.SG.IMP to.DEF.SG.ACC cinema.ACC / 'I'm going to the cinema') (b) a (subset) of intensional transitive verbs license bare i
  Contributor: Giorgos Spathas
   Greek (Calabria) No Cristina Guardiano
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: ena neka qainata qazan
  Gloss: INDF woman.SG.NOM boil.PRS.3SG cauldron.SG.ACC
  Translation: a woman is boiling a cauldron
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Pontic) Yes Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Guébie Yes Hannah Sande
   Hebrew Yes Assif Am-David
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: zoveach hasse 'oref keleb (Is 66,3)
  Gloss: who salughters for a sacrifice.PTCP the-lamb.ART-OBJ (he who) breaks the neck of.PTCP dog.OBJ
  Translation: he that sacrificeth a lamb, as if he cut off a dog's neck
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
+ Hindi Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
  Words: mãĩne kitaab padhii
  Gloss: I.ERG book read.PST.FEM
  Translation: I read a book
  Comment: from property definition.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
+ Hungarian Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
  Words: olvastam könyvet
  Gloss: read.1SG book.ACC
  Translation: I read a book
  Comment: see property definition
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
  Words: látok kutyát
  Gloss: see.PRST.1SG.INDEF dog.ACC
  Translation: I see a dog
  Comment: see property definition
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
  Words: Tegnap kalapot vettem.
  Gloss: yesterday hat-ACC buy.PAST.1SG
  Translation: Yesterday I bought a hat.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   imbabura quichua Yes Pam Munro
+ Italian No Cristina Guardiano
  Words: * ho visto cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen dog
  Translation: Intended: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ho visto un cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen a dog
  Translation: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
+ Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) Yes Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: naanu baaLehaNNu tinde
  Gloss: I banana.fruit eat.pst.agr
  Translation: I ate a banana
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   Kashaya Yes John Gluckman
   KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
+ Korean Yes Shin-Sook Kim
  Words: na-nun chayk-ul ilk-ess-ta
  Gloss: I-TOP book-ACC read-PST-DECL
  Translation: I read a book.
  Contributor: Shin-Sook Kim
+ Kusaal Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: Sous, dau la sa da ͛ gban, amaa ᴐ nan bu karim li
  Gloss: esterday man DEF PRT buy book, but he has not read it yet
  Translation: ͚ the man bought a book yesterday but he has not read it yet
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo
  Words: nam ipse vicus ecclesiam habet
  Gloss: in.fact this:NOM village:NOM church:ACC have:PRS.3SG
  Translation: 'in fact this village has a church'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 7.7) - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Mada Yes Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy Yes Hilda Koopman
   Mandarin Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
+ Muyang Yes Bebey Théodore
  Words: Eweni no sokumà wakit-à
  Gloss: Yersterday, 1sg buy-P1 book-Asp
  Translation: Yesterday I bought a book
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: Eweni ne pè kra a dzerni goru-v-à
  Gloss: Yesterday, 1sg see-P1 dog at garden my-in-Asp
  Translation: Yesterday, I saw a dog in my garden
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: Mario á wáy ó sokúm ordineter ama é sír weley ge-ni weley ndo
  Gloss: Mario 3sg want 3sg buy computer but 3sg know which of-def which Neg
  Translation: Mario wants to buy computer, but he doesn’t know which one
  Comment: Clausal final negation; contituent structure of which one remains to be figured out
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ nda'nda' Yes Bertille Baron
  Words: ʒúgə́ ŋgə́ jɔ́ ŋwɔ̀ -sə̀kú
  Gloss: yesterday 1STSG.PST meet child-school
  Translation: ‘Yesterday, I met a student.’
  Contributor: Bertille Baron
+ Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
  Words: I går kjøp-te jeg sykkel
  Gloss: yesterday buy-past I bike
  Translation: Yesterday I bought a bike
  Comment: Bare indefinite singular count nouns get a type reading
  Contributor: Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Mi ka wosika
  Gloss: 1.sg write letter
  Translation: I wrote a letter
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Old English Yes Willem Koopman
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden
  Words: that thar the hêlogo Crist an themu hûse innan têcan uuarhte
  Gloss: that there the holy Christ in the house inside sign worked
  Translation: that there, inside the house, Jesus worked a miracle
  Comment: (Heliand 2068-2069)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Nd -e -nya khu-kula o- mu -toka
  Gloss: 1sg-FUT-want INFIN-buy AUG- C3-car
  Translation: I want to buy a car
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia 'am cumpărat palton' - I bought coat'
+ Russian Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
  Words: Ja vstretila sobaku
  Gloss: I.NOM meet.pst.fem.sg dog.acc.sg
  Translation:  I met a dog (can also mean: I met the dog)
  Comment: from the property definition: A singular count noun with accusative case is compatible with both an indefinite and a definite interpretation, thus counting as bare.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Samoan No Hilda Koopman
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec Yes George Aaron Broadwell
+ Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
  Words: *vìtti kàni
  Gloss: saw.1S dog
  Translation: Intended: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: vìtti nu kàni
  Gloss: saw.1S a dog
  Translation: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Spanish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Swedish No fredrik heinat The object after the verb 'ha' (have) can take a bare singular noun, as in "Vi har hund/bil." (We have dog/car) "We have a dog/ a car."
+ Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so kumpratə na skamorzə
  Gloss: I.am bought a mozzarella
  Translation: I bought mozzarella
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *so kumpratə skamorzə
  Gloss: I.am bought mozzarella
  Translation: I bought mozzarella
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish Yes Sozen Ozkan
   Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Vietnamese Yes Jimmy Nguyen
  Words: Em đọc sách.
  Gloss: I read book
  Translation: I read a book.
  Contributor: Jimmy Nguyen
+ Wolof Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
  Words: Xadi gis-na sàcc
  Gloss: Xadi see-FIN thief
  Translation: Xadi saw a thief
  Comment: see property definition. a specific interpretation (e.g. a certain thief ) is also possible. (Tamba, Torrence, Zimmermann 2013: 904, ex 32b).
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen