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w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article

Definition
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    Indefinite singular count nouns in object position

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are three property definitions for indefinite singular count nouns in object position:

    can be 'bare', must have an 'article', can have an 'article'


    Plus an additional one

    Indefinite singular count nouns in object position may have a plural-like reading


Indefinite singular count nouns in object position must have an article


This property is set to 'yes' if an unmodified, indefinite, morphologically singular count noun in object position must:


  1. occur with an article (e.g. the indefinite article, the numeral one)
  2. (for languages without articles but with classifiers, noun classes, case, adpositional endings, etc) exhibit structural alternation with noun phrases containing:
    1. a definite singular count noun in object position, or
    2. an indefinite plural noun in object position

Elicitation context

Yesterday I bought _____ book (first mention of book, singular, non-specific)


[ More contexts ]

Additional instructions

  1. The indefinite singular count noun must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements, etc)
  2. The sentence is affirmative, NOT negative, interrogative, etc (if you notice any difference between affirmative and negative/interrogative contexts, please comment, or contact us)
  3. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. abstract nouns (John finds love everywhere)
    2. collective nouns (Italy changed government last week, I saw people at the party)
    3. singular nouns of chemical elements or other physical entities (I put oxygen in the tank)
    4. singular nouns of arts and sciences (I love chemistry)
    5. home
  4. If there is more than one object position in your language, test this property for each position

Examples

1.

English is 'yes' for this property: indefinite singular count nouns in object position must have an indefinite article.

    1. I met a dog
    2. I read a book
    3. I met a teacher
    1. *I met dog
    2. *I read book
    3. *I met teacher

2.

Basque is 'yes' for this property: indefinite singular count nouns in object position must have an indefinite article bat, which is homophonous to the numeral one.

i.a

  • liburu bat irakurri dut
    book one read AUX
    " I read a book "

They cannot be bare.

i.b

  • * liburu irakurri dut
    book read AUX
    " I read a book "

3.

Modern Greek is 'no' for this property: indefinite singular count nouns in object position can be bare (Alexopoulou and Folli 2011 ex 26a, p.18).

  • dhiavase efimeridha
    read.3sg newspaper
    " S/he read a newspaper "

4.

Hindi is 'no' for this property: indefinite singular (non specific) count nouns in object position can be bare.

  • mâîne kitaab padhii (the d has a dot below. Html code: U+1E0D)
    I.ERG book read.PAST.FEM
    " I read a book "

5.

Hungarian is 'no' for this property: indefinite singular count nouns in object position can be bare (cf. also de Swart and Farkas 2005).

i.

  • egész délután könyvet olvastam
    whole afternoon book.ACC read.1SG
    " I read books all afternoon long "

ii.

  • látok kutyát
    see.PRST.1SG.INDEF dog.ACC
    " I see a dog "

6.

Wolof is 'no' for this property: indefinite singular count nouns in object position can be bare (Tamba, Torrence, Zimmermann 2013: 904, ex 32).

  • Xadi gis-na sàcc
    Xadi see-FIN thief
    " Xadi saw a thief "
Comment: a specific interpretation (e.g. a certain thief ) is also possible.

7.

Hebrew is 'no' for this property: indefinite singular count nouns in object position are bare.

i.

  • karati sefer
    I.read book
    " I read a book "

ii.

  • pagashti ish
    I.met man
    " I met a man "

iii.

  • raiti kelev
    I.saw dog
    " I saw a dog "

8.

Russian is 'no' for this property: indefinite Indefinite singular count nouns in object position are bare. A singular count noun with accusative case is compatible with both an indefinite and a definite interpretation, thus counting as bare.

i.

  • Ja vstretila sobaku
    I.NOM meet.pst.fem.sg dog.acc.sg
    " I met a dog " (can also mean I met the dog)

ii.

  • Ja vstretil uCitelja
    I.NOM meet.pst.masc.sg teacher.acc.sg
    " I met a teacher " (can also mean I met the teacher)

iii.

  • Ja proCitala knigu
    I.NOM read.pst.fem.sg book.acc.sg
    " I read a book " (can also mean I read the book)

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Akan-twi No AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   American Sign Language No Natasha Abner
   Amharic No Hilda Koopman
   Ancient Greek No Cristina Guardiano
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Catalan Yes Victoria Mateu
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
+ Croatian No Daniela Culinovic
  Words: Taj otrov moze ubiti slona u manje od pet minuta.
  Gloss: that.NOM poison.NOM can kill elephant.ACC in less than five minutes
  Translation: That poison can kill an elephant in less than five minutes.
  Contributor: Daniela Culinovic
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: Marie kan in vijf minuten een fiets verkopen
  Gloss: Mary can in 5 minutes a bike sell
  Translation: Mary can sell a bike in five minutes
  Comment: The indefinite article is reduced and unstressed [schwa n]. It is related to the numeral one /e:n/ which bears stress
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ English Yes the property authors
  Words: *I met dog
  Contributor: the property authors
  Words: I met a dog
  Contributor: the property authors
   Faroese Yes Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   Farsi No Natasha Schimka
   French Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   French (Ivorian) No Akpoué Josué
   Garifuna No Pam Munro
   German Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek No Giorgos Spathas
  Words: Diavaz-o (mia) efimeridh-a.
  Gloss: read-1.SG.IMP INDF.SG.ACC newspaper-SG.ACC
  Translation: I am reading a newspaper.
  Contributor: Giorgos Spathas
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Pontic) No Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Hebrew No Assif Am-David
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Hungarian No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   imbabura quichua No Pam Munro
+ Italian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ho visto un cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen a dog
  Translation: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: * ho visto cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen dog
  Translation: Intended: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) No Amrit Amritavalli
   Kashaya Yes John Gluckman
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Korean No Shin-Sook Kim
   Kusaal No Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Hilda Koopman
   Mandarin No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   nda'nda' No Bertille Baron
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
+ Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Mi ka wosika
  Gloss: 1.sg write letter
  Translation: I wrote a letter
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Old English No Willem Koopman
   Old French No Heather Burnett
   Old Saxon No George Walkden
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al Yes Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian No Monica Alexandrina Irimia 'am cumpărat palton' - I bought coat'
   Russian No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Samoan Yes Hilda Koopman
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: vìtti nu kàni
  Gloss: saw.1S a dog
  Translation: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: *vìtti kàni
  Gloss: saw.1S dog
  Translation: Intended: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Spanish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Swedish Yes fredrik heinat
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so kumpratə na skamorzə
  Gloss: I.am bought a mozzarella
  Translation: I bought mozzarella
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *so kumpratə skamorzə
  Gloss: I.am bought mozzarella
  Translation: I bought mozzarella
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Sozen Ozkan
   Vata No Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
   Wolof No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen