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w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare

Definition
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    Definite singular count nouns in object position

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are three property definitions for definite singular count nouns in object position:

    can be 'bare', must have an 'article', can have an 'article'


Definite singular count nouns in object position can be bare


This property is set to 'yes' if an unmodified, definite, morphologically singular count noun in object position can be bare at least in the following context:


I met two boys and a girl. I called ____ girl
[ More contexts]

A bare noun phrase, for the purposes of this set of properties,

  1. lacks an article or a demonstrative
  2. (for languages without articles but with classifiers, noun classes, case, adpositional endings, etc) exhibits no structural alternation with noun phrases containing:
    1. an indefinite singular count noun, or
    2. a definite plural count noun

Additional instructions

  1. The definite singular count noun must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements, etc)
  2. The sentence is affirmative, NOT negative, interrogative, etc (if you notice any difference between affirmative and negative/interrogative contexts, please comment, or contact us)
  3. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. proper names (the teacher saw John, I visited London)
    2. kinship nouns (John called mom)
    3. abstract nouns (John finds love everywhere)
    4. collective nouns (Italy changed government last week, I saw people at the party)
    5. singular nouns of chemical elements or other physical entities (I put oxygen in the tank)
    6. singular nouns of arts and sciences (I love chemistry)
    7. home
  4. If there is more than one object position in your language, test this property for each position

Examples

1.

Mandarin is 'yes'€ for this property: definite singular count nouns in object position can be bare (Cheng & Sybesma 1999: 510 ex 1b).

  • Hufei he-wan-le tang
    Hufei drink-finish-LE soup
    " Hufei finished the soup "

2.

Russian is '€˜yes'€ for this property: definite singular count nouns in object position can be bare. A singular count noun with accusative case is compatible to both an indefinite and a definite interpretation, thus counting as bare.

i.a

  • Ja vstretila sobaku
    I meet.PST.FEM.SG dog.ACC.SG
    " I met the dog " (can also mean I met a dog)

i.b

  • Ja proCitala knigu
    I read.PST.FEM.SG book.ACC.SG
    " I read the book " (can also mean I read a book)

i.c

  • Ja vstretil uCitelja
    I meet.PST.MASC.SG teacher.ACC.SG
    " I met the teacher " (can also mean I met a teacher)

3.

English is 'no' for this property: definite singular count nouns in object position cannot be bare (i). They must have the definite article (the, ii).

    1. Context: I met two boys and a girl. * I called girl
    2. Context: There was a book and a pen on the table. *he took book, but he left pen
    1. Context: I met two boys and a girl. I called the girl
    2. Context: There was a book and a pen on the table. he took the book, but he left the pen

4.

Rumanian is '€no'€™™ for this property: definite singular count nouns in object position cannot be bare.

i.

  • * am întâlnit profesor
    have.AUX.3.SG.INDIC. PRES meet.PST.PRT professor
    intended: " I’ve met the teacher "

The definite article –ul is obligatory.

ii.

  • am întâlnit profesor-ul
    have.AUX.3.SG.INDIC. PRES meet.PST.PRT professor-the
    " I'€™ve met the teacher "

6.

Wolof is 'no' for this property: definite singular count nouns in object position cannot be bare.

i.a

  • * gis na-a xaj
    see FIN-1 dog
    intended: " I saw the dog "

i.b

  • * jàng na-a téére
    read FIN-1 book
    intended: " I read the book "

A definite article (-i), preceded by a noun class agreement marker (NCL), is obligatory (Tamba, Torrence, Zimmermann, 2012).

ii.a

  • gis na-a xaj b-i
    see FIN-1 dog NCL-DEF
    " I saw the dog "

ii.b

  • jàng na-a téére b-i
    read FIN-1 book NCL-DEF
    " I read the book "

7.

Cantonese is 'no'€ for this property: definite singular count nouns in object position can not be bare.

i.

  • * gaa ce zo-zyu ceot hau
    CL car block-CONT exit
    Intended: " The car is blocking the exit "

They require a classifier (CL) (Cheng & Sybersma 1999: 521, ex 19a).

ii.

  • gaa ce zo-zyu go ceot hau
    CL car block-CONT CL exit
    " The car is blocking the exit "
Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Akan-twi No AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   American Sign Language Yes Natasha Abner
   Amharic No Hilda Koopman
   Ancient Greek No Cristina Guardiano
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
+ Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Mɛ bí- ɓɔmá dílɔ́gá díɓáa ni hiŋgɔnda (hjádá), mɛ bí-seɓél hiŋgɔnda (*hjádá)
  Gloss: I PST2-meet 12.boys 2.two and 19.girl (19.one) I PST2-call 19.girl 19.one
  Translation: I met two boys and a girl. I called the girl.
  Comment: Note that although the cardinal hjádá ‘one’ is OK in the first NP, it cannot be present in the definite one.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Kaat (jadá) ni tilná (jádá) bí- ɓé í ŋgií téble. Mɛ bí- jɔŋ kaat (*jada), mɛ wâs tílnâ (*jáda )
  Gloss: 7.book 7.one and 7.pen/pencil 7.one 8.SM-be.PST LOC up 7.table. I PST2-take 7.book 7.one I leave.PST 7.pen/pencil 7.one
  Translation:  A book and a pen were on the table. ‘I took the book, I left the pen.’
  Comment: Note that in Basàá, when a coordinate structure is made up of two names (-human) of the same noun class or two names of two different noun classes, the subject marker must bear morphological agreement of class 8 as shown above. Although the nouns kaat ‘book’ and tilná ‘pen/pencil’ belong each to the same class (i.e. class 7), the subject marker bears class 8 agreement (bi-).
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: ngo lo-zo syu, daanhai ngo lau-dai-zo bat.
  Gloss: I take-PFV book. but I leave-PEF-PFV pen.
  Translation: I took the book, but I left the pen.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro
+ Croatian Yes Daniela Culinovic
  Words: Context: A book and a pen are on the table.Uzela sam knjigu, ali sam ostavila olovku.
  Gloss: took.PST.PTCP.FEM has.PRS.3SG book.ACC.SG but has.PRES leave.PST.PTCP.FEM pencil.ACC.SG
  Translation: I took the book but I left the pencil.
  Contributor: Daniela Culinovic
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
+ English No the property authors
  Words: I met two boys and a girl. * I called girl
  Contributor: the property authors
  Words: There was a book and a pen on the table. *he took book, but he left pen
  Contributor: the property authors
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
+ Farsi Yes Natasha Schimka
  Words: Ketâb khari-dam
  Gloss: Book buy-1SG.PST
  Translation: I bought the book
  Contributor: Natasha Schimka
   French No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   French (Ivorian) No Akpoué Josué
   Garifuna Yes Pam Munro
   German No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek No Giorgos Spathas
  Words: *Kale-sa koritsi.
  Gloss: call-1.SG.PST.PFV girl.SG.ACC
  Translation: I called the girl.
  Comment: Context: I met a boy and a girl.
  Contributor: Giorgos Spathas
   Greek (Calabria) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Pontic) No Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Guébie Yes Hannah Sande
   Hebrew No Assif Am-David
+ Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
  Comment: It would appear that in some cases it can be bare. For example 1Sam 21,6: "So the priest gave him hallowed (bread)", where there is only the adjective: in previous verses the priest had said: "There is no common bread under mine hand, but there is hallowed bread". See also 1Sam 22,13:
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
+ Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
  Comment: Unless it is a possessum: Felhi'vta bara'tja't `He called his friend'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ imbabura quichua Yes Pam Munro
  Words: Ishkay jari wambrakunata shuj warmi wambratapash rikurkani. Warmi wambrataka kayarkanimi.
  Gloss: TWO MALE CHILD.pl.acc ONE FEMALE CHILD.acc.AND SEE.pst.1 FEMALE CHILD.acc.top CALL.pst.1.foc
  Translation: I saw two boys and a/one girl. I called to the girl.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Italian No Cristina Guardiano
  Words: * ho visto cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen dog
  Translation: Intended: I saw the dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ho visto il cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen the dog
  Translation: I saw the dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
+ Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) No Amrit Amritavalli Not in past tense/perfective (which is the given elicitation context). In generic sentences, some singular human count nouns can be bare with a definite meaning. only.
  Words: naanu aa baaLehaNNu tinde
  Gloss: I that banana eat.pst.agr
  Translation: I ate that banana
  Comment: A demonstrative normally combines with accusative Case. But just in the case of the presence of a demonstratives AND a well defined phonological environment at the right edge of the noun (phonologically similar to the case form), the accusative can drop. This is not possible if the demonstrative is absent.
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: avaLu magu nooDikoLLuttaaLe
  Gloss: she child look after
  Translation: she looks after a specific/ definite child.
  Comment: In generic/habitual sentences, a defin sing human count noun can be bare. (this context does not fall under the elicitation context, so it does not warrant a yes value).
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   Kashaya Yes John Gluckman
   KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
+ Korean Yes Shin-Sook Kim
  Words: nayngcangko-ey pay twu kay-wa sakwa han kay-ka iss-ess-ta. Mina-nun sakwa-lul kkenay-ss-ta.
  Gloss: fridge-in pear two CLF-and apple one CLF-NOM exist-PST-DECL. Mina-TOP apple-ACC take.out-PST-DECL
  Translation: There were two pears and an apple in the fridge. Mina took the apple out.
  Contributor: Shin-Sook Kim
+ Kusaal Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: M sa bυᴐl dap ayi ne pυa
  Gloss: 1sg PRT call men two and woman
  Translation: I called two men and a woman
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo
  Words: nos ergo sabbato sera ingressi sumus montem
  Gloss: PERS.PR.1PL:NOM then saturday:ABL late:ABL reach:PTCP.NOM AUX.3SG mountain:NOM
  Translation: 'We reached the mountain late on the sabbath'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 3.1) the mountain (Sinai) is introduced in the previous context, and is thus unique and familiar - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Hilda Koopman
   Mandarin Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
+ nda'nda' Yes Bertille Baron
  Words: mɔ́g á jɔ́ pfwɔ̀-sɛ̀p mbə̀gə̀ pú ŋwɔ̀-ŋgwə̀ / ŋgə́ ʧjɔ́ ŋwɔ̀-ŋgwə̀
  Gloss: 1STSG PST meet children-boys two and child-girl / 1STSG.PST call child-girl
  Translation: ‘I met two boys and a girl. I called the girl.’
  Contributor: Bertille Baron
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Musa wu nanko
  Gloss: Musa beat cow
  Translation: Musa beat the cow
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Old English No Willem Koopman
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden
  Words: Sie gibod lêstun
  Gloss: they command performed
  Translation: They followed his command
  Comment: (Heliand 2258)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian No Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Samoan No Hilda Koopman
+ Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu na pìnna e nu kwatèrnu. * Pigghjài pìnna ma lassài kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3p a pen and a notebook. Took.1S pen but left.1S notebook
  Translation: Intended: there were a pen and a notebook on the table. I took the pen but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu na pìnna e nu kwatèrnu. Pigghjài a pìnna ma lassài u kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3p a pen and a notebook. Took.1S the pen but left.1S the notebook
  Translation: there were a pen and a notebook on the table. I took the pen but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Spanish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
+ Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta nu pollə e na pizzə. *Lenə a kutʃinitə pollə ma a kumpratə pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena has cooked chicken but she.has bought pizza.
  Translation: in the kitchen there is chicken and pizza. Elena cooked the chicken but she bought the pizza.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta nu pollə e na pizzə. Lenə a kutʃinitə nu pollə ma a kumpratə na pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena has cooked a chicken but she.has bought a pizza.
  Translation: in the kitchen there is chicken and pizza. Elena cooked the chicken but she bought the pizza.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Sozen Ozkan
+ Vietnamese Yes Jimmy Nguyen
  Words: Nó gọi con gái.
  Gloss: He call CLS girl
  Translation: He calls the girl.
  Contributor: Jimmy Nguyen
+ Wolof No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
  Words: *gis na-a xaj
  Gloss: see FIN-1S dog
  Translation: intended: I saw the dog
  Comment: see property definition. A definite article (-i), preceded by a noun class agreement marker (Ncl), is obligatory (Tamba, Torrence, Zimmermann 2013)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen