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w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article

Definition
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    Definite singular count nouns in object position

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are three property definitions for definite singular count nouns in object position:

    can be 'bare', must have an 'article', can have an 'article'


Definite singular count nouns in object position must have an article


This property is set to 'yes' if an unmodified, definite, morphologically singular count noun in object position must:

  1. occur with an article or a demonstrative
  2. (for languages without articles but with classifiers, noun classes, case, adpositional endings, etc) exhibit structural alternation with noun phrases containing:
    1. an indefinite singular count noun, and/or
    2. a definite plural count noun

Elicitation context
I met two boys and a girl. I called ____ girl
[ More contexts]

Additional instructions

  1. The definite singular count noun must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements, etc)
  2. The sentence is affirmative, NOT negative, interrogative, etc
  3. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. proper names (the teacher saw John, I visited London)
    2. kinship nouns (John called mom)
    3. abstract nouns (John finds love everywhere)
    4. collective nouns (Italy changed government last week, I saw people at the party)
    5. singular nouns of chemical elements or other physical entities (I put oxygen in the tank)
    6. singular nouns of arts and sciences (I love chemistry)
    7. home

Examples

1.

English is 'yes' for this property: definite singular count nouns in object position must have a definite article (the, i). They cannot be bare (ii).

    1. Context: I met two boys and a girl. I called the girl
    2. Context: There was a book and a pen on the table. he took the book, but he left the pen
    1. Context: I met two boys and a girl. * I called girl
    2. Context: There was a book and a pen on the table. *he took book, but he left pen

2.

Rumanian is 'yes'€™™ for this property: definite singular count nouns in object position must have a definite article (ul).

i.

  • am întâlnit profesor-ul
    have.AUX.3.SG.INDIC.PRES meet.PST.PRT professor-the
    " I ha€™ve met the teacher "

A bare noun is excluded with definite singular count objects.

ii.

  • * am întâlnit profesor
    have.AUX.3.SG.INDIC.PRES meet.PST.PRT professor
    intended: " I have met the teacher "

3.

Basque is 'yes'€™™ for this property: definite singular count nouns in object position must have an article (a, i.a) or a demonstrative (i.b).

ia.

  • irakasle-a topatu nuen
    teacher-A found 1.AUX.PAST
    " I met the teacher "

ib.

  • irakasle hau topatu nuen
    teacher this found 1.AUX.PAST
    " I met this teacher "

A bare noun is excluded with definite singular count objects (ii).

ii.

  • * irakasle topatu nuen
    * teacher found 1.AUX.PAST
    Intended: " I met the teacher "

4.

Wolof is 'yes' for this property: definite singular count nouns in object position must have an article: the definite article (i), preceded by a noun class agreement marker, is obligatory with definite singular count noun objects (Tamba, Torrence, Zimmermann, 2012).

i.a

  • gis na-a xaj b-i
    see FIN-1 dog NCL-DEF
    " I saw the dog "

i.b

  • jàng na-a téére b-i
    read FIN-1 book NCL-DEF
    " I read the book "

Definite singular count nouns in object position cannot be bare.

ii.a

  • * gis na-a xaj
    see FIN-1 dog
    intended: " I saw the dog "

ii.b

  • * jàng na-a téére
    read FIN-1 book
    intended: " I read the book "

5.

Cantonese is 'yes'€ for this property: definite singular count nouns in object position must have a classifier (CL).

i.

  • gaa ce zo-zyu go ceot hau
    CL car block-CONT CL exit
    " The car is blocking the exit "

They cannot be bare (Cheng & Sybersma 1999: 521, ex. 19a).

ii.

  • * gaa ce zo-zyu ceot hau
    CL car block-CONT exit
    Intended: " The car is blocking the exit "

6.

Akan is 'no'€ for this property: definite non familiar singular count nouns in object position can be bare.

i.

  • Kòfí á-fa tám
    Kofi PFV-take cloth
    " Kofi has taken the cloth "

Comment: familiar definite singular count nouns in object position require a visible article (Arkoh and Matthewson 2013; the referent of a noun phrase is familiar if at the time of the utterance the speakers takes the existence of the referent to already be present in the common ground of the discourse, 5; example 20b pag. 8).

ii.

  • Kòfí á-fa tám nW
    Kofi PFV-take cloth FAM
    " Kofi has taken the cloth "

7.

Mandarin is 'no'€ for this property: definite singular count nouns in object position can be bare (Cheng & Sybesma 1999: 510 ex 1b).

  • Hufei he-wan-le tang
    Hufei drink-finish-LE soup
    " Hufei finished the soup "

8.

Russian is '€˜no'€ for this property: definite singular count nouns in object position can be bare. A singular count noun with accusative case is compatible to both an indefinite and a definite interpretation, thus counting as bare.

i.a

  • Ja vstretila sobaku
    I meet.PST.FEM.SG dog.ACC.SG
    " I met the dog " (can also mean I met a dog)

i.b

  • Ja proCitala knigu
    I read.PST.FEM.SG book.ACC.SG
    " I read the book " (can also mean I read a book)

i.c

  • Ja vstretil uCitelja
    I meet.PST.MASC.SG teacher.ACC.SG
    " I met the teacher " (can also mean I met a teacher)
Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ Akan-twi Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Kofi bu -u dua no.
  Gloss: Kofi break- Pst tree Def
  Translation: Kofi fell the tree
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   American Sign Language No Natasha Abner
   Amharic Yes Hilda Koopman unique objects (moon, stars) can be bare (Paul, 2000, (53a, 53b)""
   Ancient Greek Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Catalan Yes Victoria Mateu
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
+ Croatian No Daniela Culinovic
  Words: Molim te, ocisti kupaonu za sobom.
  Gloss: please.IMP.2SG you.CL.ACC clean.IMP bathroom ACC.SG after yourself
  Translation: Please, clean the bathroom after yourself.
  Contributor: Daniela Culinovic
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: Espasa to potirin.
  Gloss: Break.PST.1SG DEF.ACC glass.ACC
  Translation: I broke the glass.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: ɪ̄ lâ jókōkpí ā
  Gloss: I call.PST young girl DEF
  Translation: I called the girl
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: Mary kan vast de fiets in vijf minuten aan iemand verkopen
  Gloss: May can surely the bike in five minutes to someone sell
  Translation: Mary can surely sell in the bike to someone in five minutes
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ English Yes the property authors
  Words: I met two boys and a girl. * I called girl
  Contributor: the property authors
  Words: There was a book and a pen on the table. *he took book, but he left pen
  Contributor: the property authors
  Words: I met two boys and a girl. I called the girl
  Contributor: the property authors
  Words: There was a book and a pen on the table. he took the book, but he left the pen
  Contributor: the property authors
   Faroese Yes Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   Farsi No Natasha Schimka
   French Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   French (Ivorian) Yes Akpoué Josué
   Garifuna No Pam Munro
   German Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Giorgos Spathas
  Words: Kale-sa *(to) koritsi.
  Gloss: call-1.SG.PST.PFV DEF.SG.ACC girl.SG.ACC
  Translation: I called the girl.
  Comment: Context: I met a boy and a girl.
  Contributor: Giorgos Spathas
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: me t=aniʒis to sandɯx (Dawkins 1916: 392)
  Gloss: NEG 3SG.ACC=open.IMP.2SG ART.DEF.SG.ACC chest.SG.ACC
  Translation: do not open the chest
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Pontic) Yes Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Hebrew Yes Assif Am-David
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: se'i 'et hanna'ar (Gen21,18)
  Gloss: lift up.IMP - PREP. introducing object - the lad.ART+NOUN
  Translation: lift up the lad
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
   imbabura quichua No Pam Munro
+ Italian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ho visto il cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen the dog
  Translation: I saw the dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: * ho visto cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen dog
  Translation: Intended: I saw the dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) Yes Amrit Amritavalli
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Korean No Shin-Sook Kim
   Kusaal No Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo
   Mada Yes Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy Yes Hilda Koopman
   Mandarin No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Muyang Yes Bebey Théodore
   nda'nda' No Bertille Baron
+ Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
  Words: Jeg så hund-en
  Gloss: I saw dog-def
  Translation: I saw the dog
  Contributor: Marit Julien
+ Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Musa wu nanko
  Gloss: Musa beat cow
  Translation: Musa beat the cow.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Old English Yes Willem Koopman
   Old French No Heather Burnett
   Old Saxon Yes George Walkden
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al Yes Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Samoan Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu na pìnna e nu kwatèrnu. Pigghjài a pìnna ma lassài u kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3p a pen and a notebook. Took.1S the pen but left.1S the notebook
  Translation: there were a pen and a notebook on the table. I took the pen but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu na pìnna e nu kwatèrnu. * Pigghjài pìnna ma lassài kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3p a pen and a notebook. Took.1S pen but left.1S notebook
  Translation: Intended: there were a pen and a notebook on the table. I took the pen but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Spanish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Swedish Yes fredrik heinat
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta nu pollə e na pizzə. Lenə a kutʃinitə nu pollə ma a kumpratə na pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena has cooked a chicken but she.has bought a pizza.
  Translation: in the kitchen there is chicken and pizza. Elena cooked the chicken but she bought the pizza.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta nu pollə e na pizzə. *Lenə a kutʃinitə pollə ma a kumpratə pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena has cooked chicken but she.has bought pizza.
  Translation: in the kitchen there is chicken and pizza. Elena cooked the chicken but she bought the pizza.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish Yes Sozen Ozkan
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
+ Wolof Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
  Words: gis na-a xaj b-i
  Gloss: see FIN-1S dog Ncl-DEF
  Translation: I saw the dog
  Comment: see property definition. (Tamba, Torrence, Zimmermann 2013)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen