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w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare

Definition
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    Indefinite plural count nouns in object position

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are three property definitions for indefinite plural count nouns in object position:

    can be 'bare', must have an 'article', can have an 'article'


Indefinite plural count nouns in object position can be bare


This property is set to 'yes' if an unmodified, indefinite, morphologically plural count noun in object position can be bare.


A bare noun phrase, for the purposes of this set of properties,

  1. lacks an article (e.g. a partitive article, i.e. English of+art, French de+art, Italian di+art, etc)
  2. (for languages without articles but with classifiers, noun classes, case, adpositional endings, etc) exhibits no structural alternation with noun phrases containing:
    1. an indefinite singular count noun, or
    2. a definite plural noun

Elicitation contexts

1) Yesterday I bought _____ books (first mention of books, plural, non-specific, non-generic)
2) Yesterday I met _____ students (first mention of students, plural, non-specific, non-generic)
3) Yesterday I saw _____ dogs in my garden (first mention of dogs, plural, non-specific, non-generic)

Additional instructions

  1. The indefinite plural count noun must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements, etc.
  2. The sentence is affirmative, NOT negative, interrogative, etc. (if you notice any difference between affirmative and negative/interrogative contexts, please comment, or contact us)
  3. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. plural nouns used as generics (I like dogs)
    2. plural nouns of arts and sciences (I love mathematics)
    3. pluralia tantum (I wear glasses)
    4. abstract nouns (John finds love everywhere)
    5. collective nouns (Italy changed government last week, I saw people at the party)
  4. If there is more than one object position in your language, test this property for each position

Examples

1.

English is 'yes' for this property: indefinite plural count nouns in object position can be bare.

    1. I met dogs
    2. I read books
    3. I met teachers

2.

Hebrew is 'yes' for this property: indefinite plural count nouns in object position can be bare.

i.

  • karati sfarim
    I.read book.PL
    " I read books "

ii.

  • raiti klavim
    I.saw dog.PL
    " I saw dogs "

3.

Hindi is 'yes' for this property: indefinite plural count nouns in object position can be bare.

  • m$acircîne kitaabê padhii (the d has a dot below. Html code: U+1E0D)
    I.ERG book.PL read.PST.FEM
    " I read books "

4.

Hungarian is 'yes' for this property: indefinite plural count nouns in object position can be bare.

i.

  • olvastam könyveket
    read.1SG book.PL.ACC
    " I read books "

ii.

  • láttam kutyákat
    see.PST.1SG dog.PLACC
    " I saw dogs "

5.

Modern Greek is 'yes' for this property: indefinite plural count nouns in object position can be bare.

  • diávasa vivlía
    read.1SG book.PL.ACC
    " I read books "

6.

Russian is '€˜yes' for this property: indefinite plural count nouns in object position can be bare. A plural count noun with accusative case is compatible to both an indefinite and a definite interpretation, thus counting as bare.

i.

  • Ja vstretila sobak
    I meet.PST.FEM.SG dog.ACC.PL
    " I met (some) dogs " (can also mean I met the dogs)

ii.

  • Ja Cital(a) knigi
    I read.PST.FEM.SG book.ACC.PL
    " I read (some) books " (can also mean I read the books)

iii.

  • Ja vstretil uCiteljej
    I meet.PST.MASC.SG teacher.ACC.PL
    " I met (some) teachers " (can also mean I met the teachers)

7.

French is 'no' for this property: indefinite plural count nouns in object position cannot be bare.

i.a

  • * J'ai lu livres
    I have read book.PL
    Intended: " I read books "

i.b

  • * J'ai rencontré enseignants
    I have met teacher.PL
    Intended: " I met teachers "

The partitive article des (= the preposition de + the definite article les) is required ([ note ]).

ii.a

  • J'ai lu des livres
    I have read of.the.PL book.PL
    " I read books "

ii.b

  • J'ai rencontré des enseignants
    I have met of.the.PL teacher.PL
    " I met teachers "

8.

Basque is 'no' for this property: indefinite plural count nouns in object position cannot be bare.

i.

  • * irakaslek topatu nituen
    teacher.PL found 1.PL.AUX.PAST
    Intended: " I met teachers "

They require the article (a), along with the plural marker (k).

ii.

  • irakasleak topatu nituen
    teacher.A.PL found 1.PL.AUX.PAST
    " I met teachers " (it can also mean I met the teachers)

9.

Wolof is 'no' for this property: indefinite plural count nouns in object position cannot be bare.

i.

  • * jàng na-a tééré
    read FIN-1S book
    Intended: " I read books "

They always occur with an indefinite plural marker (cf. also Tamba, Torrence and Zimmermann 2013).

ii.

  • jàng na-a a-y tééré
    read FIN-1S indef.PL book
    " I read books "

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ Akan-twi Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Kofi bu -u nua.
  Gloss: Kofi break- Pst pl.tree
  Translation: ‘Kofi fell trees’
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Ancient Greek Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
   Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: camjat ngo maai-zo syu
  Gloss: yesterday I buy-PFV book
  Translation: Yesterday I bought a book.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan Yes Victoria Mateu
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro
+ Croatian Yes Daniela Culinovic
  Words: Jucer sam kupila knjige.
  Gloss: Yesterday have.PRS.1SG buy.PST.PTCP.FEM book.ACC.PL
  Translation: Yesterday I bought some/the books.
  Comment: Plural objects can have indefinite interpretation when they appear in the genitive case with an overt quantifier: Jucer sam kupila nekoliko/nesto knjiga.GEN.PL./Yesterday I bought several/some books. in the accusative case plural objects are ambiguous between definite and indefinite interpretation.
  Contributor: Daniela Culinovic
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: Efera efimerides.
  Gloss: Bring.PST.1SG newspaper.PL.ACC
  Translation: I brought newspapers.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Vi købte bøger i går
  Gloss: We buy.PRF book.PL yesterday
  Translation: We bough books yesterday
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: ɪ̄ sâ srí
  Gloss: I build.PERF house.PL
  Translation: I built houses
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words:  Marie kan goed fietsen opknappen
  Gloss: Mary can well bike.PL fix
  Translation: May can fix bikes
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ English Yes the property authors
  Words:  I met students all afternoon long
  Contributor: the property authors
   Faroese Yes Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   French No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   French (Ivorian) Yes Akpoué Josué
   Garifuna Yes Pam Munro
   German Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Giorgos Spathas
  Words: Ajora-sa vivli-a.
  Gloss: buy-1.SG.PST.PERF book-PL.ACC
  Translation: I bought books.
  Contributor: Giorgos Spathas
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: sabaxdan ʃikoçi ce ivre lires (Dawkins 1916: 346)
  Gloss: in_the_morning rise.PST.3SG and find.PST.3SG gold_coin.PL.ACC
  Translation: in the morning she woke up and found gold coins
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Pontic) Yes Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Guébie Yes Hannah Sande
   Hebrew Yes Assif Am-David
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: lo' yarbeh lo susim (Deut 17,16)
  Gloss: not.NEG shall multiply.IPFV3SG for himself.PREP-SUFF horses.INDEF
  Translation: He shall not multiply horses for himself
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
+ Hungarian Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
  Words: Kalapokat vettem.
  Gloss: hat-PL-ACC buy.PAST.1SG
  Translation: I bought hats.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ imbabura quichua Yes Pam Munro
  Words: Kaynaka librukunatami randirkani
  Gloss: Yesterday BOOK.pl.acc.foc BUY.pst.1
  Translation: Yesterday I bought books
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Italian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ho visto cani
  Gloss: have.1S seen dogs
  Translation: I saw dogs
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
+ Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) Yes Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: naanu makkaLu nooDide
  Gloss: I children see.pst.agr
  Translation: I saw children
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   Kashaya Yes John Gluckman
   KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
+ Korean Yes Shin-Sook Kim
  Words: na-nun chayk-ul ilk-ess-ta
  Gloss: I-TOP book-ACC read-PST-DECL
  Translation: I read books. (can also mean: I read a book.)
  Comment: A bare count noun is compatible to both a singular and a plural interpretation.
  Contributor: Shin-Sook Kim
+ Kusaal Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: Sous, dau la sa da’ gbana
  Gloss: yesterday, man.NC DEF PRT buy book
  Translation: The man bought books yesterday.
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo
  Words: statim sancti monachi…arbusculas ponunt
  Gloss: immediately holy:NOM monk:NOM little.trees:ACC put:PRS.3PL
  Translation: 'the holy monks immediately plant small trees'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 3.6) - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Mada Yes Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy Yes Hilda Koopman
   Mandarin Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Muyang Yes Bebey Théodore
  Words: Ata wakita ndata bic to bú mabehaDani ka tebil ni. Na zày wakita ni, ama ne brìng bic ni.
  Gloss: Pl book and pen 3pl be-P1 put on table def. 1sg take-P1 book def, but 1sg leave pen def.
  Translation: A book and a pen were on the table. I took book, but I left pen
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ nda'nda' Yes Bertille Baron
  Words: ʒúgə́ ŋgə̀ jú ŋwá’ɲə̀
  Gloss: yesterday 1STSG.PST buy book
  Translation: ‘Yesterday I bought books.’
  Contributor: Bertille Baron
+ Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
  Words: I går kjøp-te jeg bøk-er
  Gloss: yesterday buy-past I book-pl
  Translation: Yesterday I bought books'
  Contributor: Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Mi ka wosika-zi
  Gloss: 1.sg write letter-PL
  Translation: I wrote letters.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Old English Yes Willem Koopman
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden
  Words: al sô git hîr an Iordanes strôme fiscos fâhat
  Gloss: all so you.DU here in Jordan.GEN stream.DAT fish.PL catch
  Translation: as you catch fish here in the River Jordan
  Comment: (Heliand 1159-1160)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al Yes Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
+ Samoan Yes Hilda Koopman Bareness is only apparent: the plural indefininte/definite "existential" D is zero. (le in the singular).
  Words: e 'ai liona manu
  Gloss: O lions eat 0 animals
  Translation: Lions at animals
  Comment: the zero o plural articleis used for generics and indefinite objects. This is set to no, because the form looks bare (but has the distribution of a zero plural arcticle.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: vìtti piccjwòtti ppi stràta
  Gloss: saw.1S boys on street
  Translation: I saw boys on the street
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Spanish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Swedish Yes fredrik heinat
+ Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *so vistə gallinə a pizzikirsə
  Gloss: I.am seen hens to pecking.each.other
  Translation: I saw chickens pecking each other
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so vistə li gallinə a pizzikirsə
  Gloss: I.am seen the hens to pecking.each.other
  Translation: I saw the chickens pecking each other
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Triqui, Copala Yes George Aaron Broadwell
  Words: G-u̱un niha̱' rá so' c-a̱ta̱ so' cuayó a.
  Gloss: pot-become happy happy 3ms pot-raise:animals 3ms horse dec
  Translation: He is going to be happy to raise horses.
  Comment: niha̱' rá is a compound for 'happy'
  Contributor: George Aaron Broadwell
   Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Sozen Ozkan
   Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Vietnamese Yes Jimmy Nguyen
  Words: Em gặp chó.
  Gloss: I meet dog
  Translation: I meet dogs.
  Contributor: Jimmy Nguyen
+ Wolof No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
  Words: *jàng na-a tééré
  Gloss: read FIN-1S book
  Translation: Intended: I read books
  Comment: see property definition
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen