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w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article

Definition
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    Indefinite plural count nouns in object position

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are three property definitions for indefinite plural count nouns in object position:

    can be 'bare', must have an 'article', can have an 'article'


Indefinite plural count nouns in object position can have an article


This property is set to 'yes' if an unmodified, indefinite, morphologically plural count noun in object position can (but does not have to):

  1. occur with an article (e.g. a partitive article, i.e. English of+art, French de+art, Italian di+art, etc)
  2. (for languages without articles but with classifiers, noun classes, case, adpositional endings, etc) exhibit structural alternation with noun phrases containing:
    1. an indefinite singular count noun, or
    2. a definite plural noun

Elicitation contexts

1) Yesterday I bought _____ books (first mention of books, plural, non-specific, non-generic)
2) Yesterday I met _____ students (first mention of students, plural, non-specific, non-generic)
3) Yesterday I saw _____ dogs in my garden (first mention of dogs, plural, non-specific, non-generic)

Additional instructions

  1. The indefinite plural count noun must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements, etc.
  2. The sentence is affirmative, NOT negative, interrogative, etc. (if you notice any difference between affirmative and negative/interrogative contexts, please comment, or contact us)
  3. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. plural nouns used as generics (I like dogs)
    2. plural nouns of arts and sciences (I love mathematics)
    3. pluralia tantum (I wear glasses)
    4. abstract nouns (John finds love everywhere)
    5. collective nouns (Italy changed government last week, I saw people at the party)
  4. If there is more than one object position in your language, test this property for each position

Examples

1.

Italian is 'yes' for this property: indefinite plural count nouns in object position can either be bare (i.a) or occur with the partitive article dei/degli/delle (i.b).

i.a

  • ho incontrato studenti per tutto il pomeriggio
    I.have met student.M.PL for all.M.S the.M.S afternoon.M.S
    " I met students all afternoon long "

i.b

  • ho incontrato degli studenti alla festa
    I.have met of.the.M.PL student.M.PL at.the.F.S party.F.S
    " I met students at the party "

2.

Russian is '€˜yes' for this property: indefinite plural count nouns in object position can have partitive case (PRT), which counts as an article (i.a), or accusative case, which counts as bare (i.b).

i.a

  • Ja kupila knig-0
    I buy.PST.FEM.SG book.PART.PL
    " I bought (some) books "

i.b

  • Ja kupila knig-i
    I buy.PST.FEM.SG book.ACC.PL
    " I bought books " (can also mean I read the books)

3.

English is 'no' for this property: indefinite plural count nouns in object position are bare.


i. I met students all afternoon long


Indefinite plural count nouns in object position may occur with the quantifier some, that does not display any article-like properties (as for instance opposed to French des or Italian dei/degli/delle, that actually contain a definite article; Kayne 2008).


ii. I met some students


4.

French is 'no' for this property: indefinite plural count nouns in object position must have the partitive article des (= the preposition de + the definite article les).

i.a

  • J'ai lu des livres
    I have read of.the.PL book.PL
    " I read books "

i.b

  • J'ai rencontré des enseignants
    I have met of.the.PL teacher.PL
    " I met teachers "

Bare plural nouns are not allowed in object position.

ii.a

  • * J'ai lu livres
    I have read book.PL
    Intended: " I read books "

ii.b

  • * J'ai rencontré enseignants
    I have met teacher.PL
    Intended: " I met teachers "

5.

Basque is 'no' for this property: indefinite plural count nouns in object position must have an article.

i.

  • irakasleak topatu nituen
    teacher.A.PL found 1.PL.AUX.PAST
    " I met teachers " (it can also mean I met the teachers)

They cannot be bare.

ii.

  • * irakaslek topatu nituen
    teacher.PL found 1.PL.AUX.PAST
    Intended: " I met teachers "

6.

Wolof is 'no' for this property: indefinite plural count nouns in object position must have an article.

i.

  • jàng na-a a-y tééré
    read FIN-1S indef.PL book
    " I read books "

They cannot be bare (cf. also Tamba, Torrence and Zimmermann 2013).

ii.

  • * jàng na-a tééré
    read FIN-1S book
    Intended: " I read books "
Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ Akan-twi Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Kofi wɔ kraman bi.
  Gloss:  Kofi have dog BI
  Translation: Kofi has a particular dog
  Comment: This is a specific indefinite reading
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Kofi bu -u nua bi.
  Gloss: Kofi break- Pst pl.tree BI
  Translation: 'Kofi fell some specific trees
  Comment: Takes wide scope and have specific/referential meaning
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Ancient Greek No Cristina Guardiano
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
  Words: camjat ngo maai-zo di syu
  Gloss: yesterday I buy-PFV some book
  Translation: Yesterday I bought some books.
  Comment: di ‘some’ is not a classifier.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
   Croatian No Daniela Culinovic
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
+ Dutch No Hilda Koopman
  Words: *Marie kan van de fietsen opknappen
  Gloss: Mary can of the bikes fix
  Translation: intended: Mary can fix bikes
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ English No the property authors
  Words: I met students all afternoon long
  Contributor: the property authors
  Words: * I met of.the students all afternoon long
  Contributor: the property authors
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   French No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   French (Ivorian) Yes Akpoué Josué
   Garifuna No Pam Munro
   German No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek No Giorgos Spathas
  Words: Ajora-sa vivli-a.
  Gloss: buy-1.SG.PST.PERF book-PL.ACC
  Translation: I bought books.
  Comment: The example is grammatical with the quantifier kapja 'some' Ajora-sa kapj-a vivli-a./ buy-1.SG.PST.PERF some-PL.ACC book-PL.ACC/ 'I bought some books.' The following example with the preposition apo 'from' used for partitives is grammatical under the specified meaning. Ajora-sa apo ta vivli-a./ buy-1.SG.PST.PERF from DEF.PL.ACC book-PL.ACC / 'I bough some of the books.'
  Contributor: Giorgos Spathas
   Greek (Calabria) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Pontic) No Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Hebrew No Assif Am-David
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: welo' yo'kal min haqqadashim (Lev 22,6)
  Gloss: and-not.CONJ-NEG shall eat.IPFV3SG of.PREP(partitive) the holy gifts.ART-ADJ
  Translation: and shall not eat of the holy gifts
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
+ imbabura quichua Yes Pam Munro
  Words: Kaynaka shuj librukunatami randirkani
  Gloss: Yesterday ONE BOOK.pl.acc.foc BUY.pst.1
  Translation: Yesterday I bought books
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Italian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ho visto cani
  Gloss: have.1S seen dogs
  Translation: I saw dogs
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ho visto dei cani
  Gloss: have.1S seen of.the dogs
  Translation: I saw (some) dogs
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway Here you can find in earliest texts 'de', but also 'cierti, certe, ...': eg.. Accattaje certe ccerase 'she bought some cherries'
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Korean No Shin-Sook Kim
   Kusaal No Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo still only rare and isolated examples during the stage considered here
  Words:  dederunt nobis presbyteri loci ipsius eulogias, id est de pomis, quae in ipso monte nascuntur
  Gloss: give:PFV.3PL PERS.PR.1PL.DAT priest:NOM place:GEN that:GEN eulogiae:ACC, that:NOM be:PRS.3SG from/of fruit:ABL which:NOM in that:ABL mountain:ABL grow:PRS.3P
  Translation: 'the priests of the place gave us eulogiae, that is, of fruits which grow on the mountain'
  Comment: Comment: (Itin. Eg. 3.6) still rarely at this stage, the precursor of so-called 'partitive article' of Romance languages can be found, e.g. here preposition 'de' + ablative, still with a clear directional value, cf. Itin. Eg, 15.6 - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Hilda Koopman unless modified? or contrast is involved (judging from the examples in Paul (2000), who cites (Rajaona 1972:432) ) tia buki frantasay 'I like French books (in general) vs tia buki ny frantsay 'I like books that are FRENCH as oppose to books in other languages .)
   Mandarin No Cristina Guardiano
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   nda'nda' No Bertille Baron
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
   Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
   Old English Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Old French No Heather Burnett
   Old Saxon No George Walkden
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al Yes Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia Particle 'din' (< de + în> 'from/of in')
   Russian Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Samoan No Hilda Koopman
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: vìtti piccjwòtti ppi stràta
  Gloss: saw.1S boys on street
  Translation: I saw boys on the street
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: vitti na pwòku ri piccjwòtti ppi strata
  Gloss: saw.1S a little of boys on street
  Translation: I saw boys on the street
  Comment: "na pwòku ri" (literally a little of) is normally used before indefinite mass and plural nouns. It usually translates the Italian partitive article (di+definite article).
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Spanish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
+ Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so vistə li gallinə a pizzikirsə
  Gloss: I.am seen the hens to pecking.each.other
  Translation: I saw the chickens pecking each other
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *so vistə gallinə a pizzikirsə
  Gloss: I.am seen hens to pecking.each.other
  Translation: I saw chickens pecking each other
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Sozen Ozkan
   Vata No Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
   Wolof No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen