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w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare

Definition
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    Definite plural count nouns in object position

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are three property definitions for definite plural count nouns in object position:

    can be 'bare', must have an 'article', can have an 'article'


Definite plural count nouns in object position can be bare


This property is set to 'yes' if an unmodified, definite, morphologically plural count noun in object position can be bare at least in the following context:


I met two students and a teacher. I invited _______ students (to the party)

[ More contexts ]

A bare noun phrase, for the purposes of this set of properties,

  1. lacks an article or a demonstrative
  2. (for languages without articles but with classifiers, noun classes, case, adpositional endings, etc) exhibits no structural alternation with noun phrases containing:
    1. an indefinite plural noun, or
    2. a definite singular count noun

Additional instructions

  1. The definite plural count noun must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements, etc)
  2. The sentence is affirmative, NOT negative, interrogative, etc (if you notice any difference between affirmative and negative/interrogative contexts, please comment, or contact us)
  3. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. plural nouns used as generics (I like dogs)
    2. plural nouns of arts and sciences (I love mathematics)
    3. pluralia tantum (I wear glasses)
  4. If there is more than one object position in your language, test this property for each position


Examples

1.

Russian is '€˜yes' for this property: definite plural count nouns in object position can be bare. A plural count noun with accusative case is compatible to both an indefinite and a definite interpretation, thus counting as bare.

i.

  • Ja vstretila sobak
    I meet.PST.FEM.SG dog.ACC.PL
    " I met the dogs " (can also mean I met dogs)

ii.

  • Ja Cital(a) knigi
    I read.PST.FEM.SG book.ACC.PL
    " I read the books " (can also mean I read books)

iii.

  • Ja vstretil uCiteljej
    I meet.PST.MASC.SG teacher.ACC.PL
    " I met the teachers " (can also mean I met teachers)

2.

Samoan is '€˜yes' for this property: definite plural count nouns in object position can be bare.

  • ?au'mai 'maile
    get.IMP dog.PL
    " Get the dogs! "

3.

English is 'no' for this property: definite plural count nouns in object position cannot be bare (i). The definite article is obligatory (ii).

    1. Context: I met two boys and a girl. * I called boys
    2. Context: There were two books and three pens on the table. *he took books, but he left pens
    1. Context: I met two boys and a girl. I called the boys
    2. Context: There were two books and three pens on the table. He took the books, but he left the pens

4.

Rumanian is 'no' for this property: definite plural count nouns in object position cannot be bare.

i.

  • * am întâlnit profesori
    have.AUX.3.SG.INDIC.PRES meet.PST.PRT professor.M.PL
    Intended " I have met the teachers "

The definite article is obligatory.

ii.

  • am întâlnit profesorii
    have.AUX.3.SG.INDIC.PRES meet.PST.PRT professor.ART.M.PL
    " I have met the teachers "

5.

Basque is 'no' for this property: definite plural count nouns in object position cannot be bare.

i.

  • * irakaslek topatu nituen
    teacher.PL found 1.PL.AUX.PAST
    Intended: " I met the teachers "

They require the plural article (ak), or a demonstrative.

ii.a

  • irakasleak topatu nituen
    teacher.A.PL found 1.PL.AUX.PAST
    " I met the teachers " (it can also mean I met teachers)

ii.b

  • irakasle hauek topatu nituen
    teacher this.PL found 1.PL.AUX.PAST
    " I met these teachers "

6.

Wolof is 'no' for this property: definite plural count nouns in object position cannot be bare.

i.a

  • * gis na-a xaj
    see FIN-1S dog
    Intended: " I saw the dogs "

i.b

  • * jàng na-a tééré
    read FIN-1S book
    Intended: " I read the books "

A definite article (i), preceded by a noun class agreement marker (NCL) is obligatory (cf. Tamba, Torrence, Zimmermann, 2012).

ii.a

  • gis na-a xaj y-i
    see FIN-1S dog NCL-Def
    " I saw the dogs "

ii.b

  • jàng na-a tééré y-i
    read FIN-1S book NCL-Def
    " I read the books "

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Akan-twi No AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Ancient Greek No Cristina Guardiano
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
+ Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: yaaní mɛ bí- sɔ́mb bíkaat
  Gloss: 1.yesterday I PST2-buy 8.books
  Translation: Yesterday I bought books
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: There were books and pens on the table. ngo lo-zo syu, daanhai ngo lau-dai-zo bat.
  Gloss: I take-PFV book, but I leave-PEF-PFV pen.
  Translation: I took the books, but I left the pens.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro
+ Croatian Yes Daniela Culinovic
  Words: context: two books and two pens are on the table.Uzela sam knjige, ali sam ostavila kemijske.
  Gloss: take.PST.PTCP.FEM have.PRS.1SG book.ACC.PL but have.PRS.1SG left.PST.PTCP.FEM pen.ACC.PL
  Translation: I took the books but I left the pens.
  Comment: Genitive plural objects with an overt quantifier has partitive interpretation in this context: Uzela sam nesto.SOME knjiga.GEN.PL/I took some of the books.
  Contributor: Daniela Culinovic
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
+ English No the property authors
  Words: I met two boys and a girl. * I called boys
  Contributor: the property authors
  Words: There were two books and three pens on the table. *he took books, but he left pens
  Contributor: the property authors
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   French No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   French (Ivorian) No Akpoué Josué
   Garifuna Yes Pam Munro
   German No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek No Giorgos Spathas
  Words: Kale-sa *(ta) ajori-a.
  Gloss: call-1.SG.PST.PFV DEF.PL.ACC boy-PL.ACC
  Translation: I called the boys.
  Comment: Context: I met two boys and a girl.
  Contributor: Giorgos Spathas
   Greek (Calabria) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Pontic) No Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Guébie Yes Hannah Sande
   Hebrew No Assif Am-David
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
+ Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
  Comment: Unless it is a possessum: Felhi'vta bara'tait. `He phoned his friends'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ imbabura quichua Yes Pam Munro
  Words: Ishkay jari wambrakunata shuj warmi wambratapash rikurkani. Jari wambrakunatami kayarkani.
  Gloss: TWO MALE CHILD.pl.acc ONE FEMALE CHILD.acc.AND SEE.pst.1 MALE CHILD.pl.acc.foc CALL.pst.1
  Translation: I saw two boys and a/one girl. I called to the boys
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Italian No Cristina Guardiano
  Words: c'erano cani e gatti per strada. *Ho visto cani ma non ho visto gatti
  Gloss: there.were dogs and cats on street. Have.1S seen dogs but not have.1S seen cats
  Translation: Intended: There were dogs and cats on the street. I saw the dogs but I didn't see the cats
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: c'erano cani e gatti per strada. Ho visto i cani ma non ho visto i gatti
  Gloss: there.were dogs and cats on street. Have.1S seen the dogs but not have.1S seen the cats
  Translation: There were dogs and cats on the street. I saw the dogs but I didn't see the cats
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) No Amrit Amritavalli
   KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
+ Korean Yes Shin-Sook Kim
  Words: na-nun namhaksayng sey myeng-kwa yehaksayng twu myeng-ul manna-ss-ta. na-nun yehaksayng-man phathi-ey chotayha-ess-ta.
  Gloss: I-TOP boy.student three CLF-and girl.student two CLF-ACC meet-PST-DECL I-TOP girl.student-only party-to invite-PST-DECL
  Translation: I met three boy students and two girl students. I invited only the girl students to the party.
  Contributor: Shin-Sook Kim
   Kusaal No Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo
  Words: nocte autem signa cameli attendunt
  Gloss: night:ABL then sign:ACC camel:NOM follow:PRS.3PL
  Translation: 'but at night the camels follow the signs'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 6.2) the signs have been introduced in the discourse in the sentence before (humans put street signs and follow them during the day, camels can follow the signs at night) - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Hilda Koopman
   Mandarin Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
+ nda'nda' Yes Bertille Baron
  Words: ŋgə̀ lɔ́ ŋwá’ɲə̀ bɛ̀ ŋgə̀ tɛ́ ʒwə́-nə̆-ŋwá'
  Gloss: 1STSG.PST take book but 1STSG.PST leave thing-to-write
  Translation: ‘I took (the) books, but I left (the) pens.’
  Contributor: Bertille Baron
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Musa pa eci-zi
  Gloss: Musa pound yam-PL
  Translation: Musa pounded the yams.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Old English No Willem Koopman
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
   Old Saxon No George Walkden I haven't found any examples of this, but they may exist (they do in Old English, and there are no studies of the nominal domain in Old Saxon).
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words:  Nd -a -bukan-ire nende o- mu -siani nende o- mu -khana. N-e-langa o- mu -khana.
  Gloss: 1sg- PST -meet-PST with AUG- C1 -boy and AUG- C1 -girl
  Translation: I met with a boy and a girl. I called the girl. I-PST-call AUG- C6 -girl.
  Comment: I called the girl.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Mungolobe, nd -a-bukan-ire nende a- ba -somi
  Gloss: Yesterday, 1sg-PST-meet-PST with AUG- C2 -student
  Translation: Yesterday, I met students
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Mungulobe, nd -a -kul-ire e- fi -tabu
  Gloss:  Yesterday, 1sg-PST-buy-PST AUG- C8 -book
  Translation: I bought books yesterday.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Nd -a-lola tsi-mbwa mu - mu -kunda kwa-nje
  Gloss: 1sg- PST - see C10-dog LOC- C3 -garden ku.a-1sg
  Translation: I saw dogs in my garden
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Nd -a-bukula tsi-kalamu tsio-nyone
  Gloss: 1sg- PST -take C10-pen Agree.- alone
  Translation: I took only the books
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian No Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Samoan Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu ru pìnni e nu kwatèrnu. * Pigghjài pìnni ma lassài kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3S two pens and a notebook. Took.1S pens but left.1S notebook
  Translation: Intended: there were two pens and a notebook on the table. I took the pens but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu ru pìnni e nu kwatèrnu. Pigghjài i pìnni ma lassài u kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3S two pens and a notebook. Took.1S the pens but left.1S the notebook
  Translation: there were two pens and a notebook on the table. I took the pens but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Spanish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
+ Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta du pullə e du pizzə. *Lenə a kutʃinitə pullə ma a kumpratə pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are two chickens and two pizzas. Elena has cooked chickens but she.has bought pizzas.
  Translation: in the kitchen there are two chickens and two pizzas. Elena cooked the chickens but she bought the pizzas.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta du pullə e na pizzə. Lenə a kutʃinitə li pullə ma a kumpratə li pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena has cooked the chickens but she.has bought the pizzas.
  Translation: in the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena cooked the chickens but she bought the pizzas.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Sozen Ozkan
+ Vietnamese Yes Jimmy Nguyen
  Words: Anh mời học sính tới chơi.
  Gloss: He invite student come play
  Translation: He invites the students to come play.
  Contributor: Jimmy Nguyen
   Wolof No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen