Login

w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article

Definition
Untitled Document

    Definite plural count nouns in object position

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are three property definitions for definite plural count nouns in object position:

    can be 'bare', must have an 'article', can have an 'article'


Definite plural count nouns in object position must have an article


This property is set to 'yes' if an unmodified, definite, morphologically plural count noun in object position must:

  1. occur with an article or a demonstrative
  2. (for languages without articles but with classifiers, noun classes, case, adpositional endings, etc) exhibit structural alternation with noun phrases containing:
    1. an indefinite plural noun, or
    2. a definite singular count noun

Elicitation context

I met two students and a teacher. I invited _______ students (to the party)

[ More contexts ]

Additional instructions

  1. The definite plural count noun must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements, etc)
  2. The sentence is affirmative, NOT negative, interrogative, etc (if you notice any difference between affirmative and negative/interrogative contexts, please comment, or contact us)
  3. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. plural nouns used as generics (I like dogs)
    2. plural nouns of arts and sciences (I love mathematics)
    3. pluralia tantum (I wear glasses)
  4. If there is more than one object position in your language, test this property for each position


Examples

1.

English is 'yes' for this property: definite plural count nouns in object position must have an article (i). They cannot be bare (ii).

    1. Context: I met two boys and a girl. I called the boys
    2. Context: There were two books and three pens on the table. He took the books, but he left the pens
    1. Context: I met two boys and a girl. * I called boys
    2. Context: There were two books and three pens on the table. *he took books, but he left pens

2.

Rumanian is 'yes' for this property: definite plural count nouns in object position must have an article (the enclitic definite article -i.

i.

  • am întâlnit profesorii
    have.AUX.3.SG.INDIC.PRES meet.PST.PRT professor.ART.M.PL
    " I have met the teachers "

A bare noun is excluded.

ii.

  • * am întâlnit profesori
    have.AUX.3.SG.INDIC.PRES meet.PST.PRT professor.M.PL
    Intended " I have met the teachers "

3.

Basque is 'yes' for this property: definite plural count nouns in object position must have the plural article (ak), or a demonstrative.

i.a

  • irakasleak topatu nituen
    teacher.A.PL found 1.PL.AUX.PAST
    " I met the teachers " (it can also mean I met teachers)

i.b

  • irakasle hauek topatu nituen
    teacher this.PL found 1.PL.AUX.PAST
    " I met these teachers "

A bare noun is excluded.

ii.

  • * irakaslek topatu nituen
    teacher.PL found 1.PL.AUX.PAST
    Intended: " I met the teachers "

4.

Wolof is 'yes' for this property: definite plural count nouns in object position must have the definite article -i, preceded by a noun class agreement marker (Tamba, Torrence, Zimmermann, 2012).

i.a

  • gis na-a xaj y-i
    see FIN-1S dog NCL-Def
    " I saw the dogs "

i.b

  • jàng na-a tééré y-i
    read FIN-1S book NCL-Def
    " I read the books "

They cannot be bare.

ii.a

  • * gis na-a xaj
    see FIN-1S dog
    Intended: " I saw the dogs "

ii.b

  • * jàng na-a tééré
    read FIN-1S book
    Intended: " I read the books "

5.

Russian is '€˜no' for this property: definite plural count nouns in object position can be bare. A plural count noun with accusative case is compatible to both an indefinite and a definite interpretation, thus counting as bare.

i.

  • Ja vstretila sobak
    I meet.PST.FEM.SG dog.ACC.PL
    " I met the dogs " (can also mean I met dogs)

ii.

  • Ja Cital(a) knigi
    I read.PST.FEM.SG book.ACC.PL
    " I read the books " (can also mean I read books)

iii.

  • Ja vstretil uCiteljej
    I meet.PST.MASC.SG teacher.ACC.PL
    " I met the teachers " (can also mean I met teachers)

6.

Samoan is '€˜no' for this property: definite plural count nouns in object position can be bare.

  • ?au'mai 'maile
    get.IMP dog.PL
    " Get the dogs! "
Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ Akan-twi Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Kofi bu -u nua no.
  Gloss: Kofi break- Pst pl.tree def
  Translation: ‘Kofi fell the trees’
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Ancient Greek Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Catalan Yes Victoria Mateu
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
+ Croatian No Daniela Culinovic
  Words: Sudac je htio vidjeti igrace prije nego je utakmica pocela.
  Gloss: referee.NOM have.PRS.3.SG want.PST.PTCP.MASC see.INF player.ACC.PL before have.PRS.3SG game.ACC.SG start.PST.PTCP.FEM
  Translation: The refreree wanted to see the players before the game started.
  Contributor: Daniela Culinovic
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: Efera tes efimerides.
  Gloss: Bring.PST.1SG DEF.PL.ACC newspaper.PL.ACC
  Translation: I brought the newspapers.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Jeg købte forskellige blomster, men roserne var flottest.
  Gloss: I buy.PRF different flower.PL, but roses.DET.PL are.PRF nicest
  Translation: I bought different flowers, but the roses were the nicest.
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: ɪ̄ lâ wó ā
  Gloss:  I call.PERF child.PL DEF
  Translation: I called the children
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: Marie kan de fietsen wel eventjes voor je opknappen.
  Gloss: Mary can the bikes POL PART for you fix up.
  Translation: Mary can fix the bikes. (approx. translation: Mary can probably fix the bikes for you quickly. The positive polarity particle (wel) and eventjes (little whiles) are difficult to translate.)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ English Yes the property authors
  Words: I met two boys and a girl. I called the boys
  Contributor: the property authors
  Words: There were two books and three pens on the table. He took the books, but he left the pens
  Contributor: the property authors
  Words: There were two books and three pens on the table. *he took books, but he left pens
  Contributor: the property authors
  Words: I met two boys and a girl. * I called boys
  Contributor: the property authors
   Faroese Yes Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   French Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   French (Ivorian) Yes Akpoué Josué
   Garifuna No Pam Munro
   German Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Giorgos Spathas
  Words: Kale-sa *(ta) ajori-a.
  Gloss: call-1.SG.PST.PFV DEF.PL.ACC boy-PL.ACC
  Translation: I called the boys.
  Comment: Context: I met two boys and a girl.
  Contributor: Giorgos Spathas
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: ektete doken d' anaxtirʝa (Dawkins 1916: 390)
  Gloss: then give.PST.3SG ART.DEF.PL.ACC key.PL.ACC
  Translation: then he gave the keys
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Pontic) Yes Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Hebrew Yes Assif Am-David
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: wayyavrek hagghemalim (Gen 24,10-11)
  Gloss: and he made kneel down.CONJ-IPFV3SGM the camels.ART-N
  Translation: (Then the servant took ten camels...). And he made the camels kneel down
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
   imbabura quichua No Pam Munro
+ Italian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: c'erano cani e gatti per strada. Ho visto i cani ma non ho visto i gatti
  Gloss: there.were dogs and cats on street. Have.1S seen the dogs but not have.1S seen the cats
  Translation: There were dogs and cats on the street. I saw the dogs but I didn't see the cats
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: c'erano cani e gatti per strada. *Ho visto cani ma non ho visto gatti
  Gloss: there.were dogs and cats on street. Have.1S seen dogs but not have.1S seen cats
  Translation: Intended: There were dogs and cats on the street. I saw the dogs but I didn't see the cats
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
+ Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) Yes Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: naanu makkaL-annu nooDide
  Gloss: I children-ACC see.pst.agr
  Translation: I saw the children
  Comment: I saw the children
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Korean No Shin-Sook Kim
+ Kusaal Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: M sa nyɛ dap ayi ne pυa
  Gloss: 1sg PRT see men two and woman
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: *n sa bυᴐl dap
  Gloss: 1sg PRT call men
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo
   Mada Yes Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy Yes Hilda Koopman
   Mandarin No Cristina Guardiano
   Muyang Yes Bebey Théodore
   nda'nda' No Bertille Baron
+ Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
  Words: Jeg kjøp-te bøk-ene
  Gloss: I buy-past book-def.pl
  Translation: I bought the books
  Contributor: Marit Julien
+ Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Musa pa eci-zi
  Gloss: Musa pounded yam-PL
  Translation: Musa pounded the yams.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Old English Yes Willem Koopman
   Old French No Heather Burnett
   Old Saxon Yes George Walkden
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al Yes Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Samoan No Hilda Koopman
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu ru pìnni e nu kwatèrnu. Pigghjài i pìnni ma lassài u kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3S two pens and a notebook. Took.1S the pens but left.1S the notebook
  Translation: there were two pens and a notebook on the table. I took the pens but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu ru pìnni e nu kwatèrnu. * Pigghjài pìnni ma lassài kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3S two pens and a notebook. Took.1S pens but left.1S notebook
  Translation: Intended: there were two pens and a notebook on the table. I took the pens but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Spanish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Swedish Yes fredrik heinat
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta du pullə e na pizzə. Lenə a kutʃinitə li pullə ma a kumpratə li pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena has cooked the chickens but she.has bought the pizzas.
  Translation: in the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena cooked the chickens but she bought the pizzas.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta du pullə e du pizzə. *Lenə a kutʃinitə pullə ma a kumpratə pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are two chickens and two pizzas. Elena has cooked chickens but she.has bought pizzas.
  Translation: in the kitchen there are two chickens and two pizzas. Elena cooked the chickens but she bought the pizzas.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish Yes Sozen Ozkan
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
+ Wolof Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
  Words: gis na-a xaj y-i
  Gloss: see FIN-1S dog Ncl-DEF
  Translation: I saw the dogs
  Comment: See property definition. A definite article (-i), preceded by a noun class agreement marker (Ncl) is obligatory (cf. Tamba, Torrence, Zimmermann, 2013)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
  Words: jàng na-a téére y-i
  Gloss: read FIN-1S book Ncl-DEF
  Translation: I read the books
  Comment: see property definition. A definite article (-i), preceded by a noun class agreement marker (Ncl) is obligatory (cf. Tamba, Torrence, Zimmermann, 2013)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen