Login

w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article

Definition
Untitled Document

    Definite plural count nouns in object position

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are three property definitions for definite plural count nouns in object position:

    can be 'bare', must have an 'article', can have an 'article'


Definite plural count nouns in object position can have an article


This property is set to 'yes' if an unmodified, definite, morphologically plural count noun in object position can (but does not have to):

  1. occur with an article or a demonstrative
  2. (for languages without articles but with classifiers, noun classes, case, adpositional endings, etc) exhibit structural alternation with noun phrases containing:
    1. an indefinite plural noun, or
    2. a definite singular count noun

Elicitation context

I met two students and a teacher. I invited _______ students (to the party)

[ More contexts ]

Additional instructions

  1. The definite plural count noun must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements, etc)
  2. The sentence is affirmative, NOT negative, interrogative, etc (if you notice any difference between affirmative and negative/interrogative contexts, please comment, or contact us)
  3. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. plural nouns used as generics (I like dogs)
    2. plural nouns of arts and sciences (I love mathematics)
    3. pluralia tantum (I wear glasses)
  4. If there is more than one object position in your language, test this property for each position


Examples

No known cases of YES, yet

1.

English is 'no' for this property: definite plural count nouns in object position must have an article (i). They cannot be bare (ii).

    1. Context: I met two boys and a girl. I called the boys
    2. Context: There were two books and three pens on the table. He took the books, but he left the pens
    1. Context: I met two boys and a girl. * I called boys
    2. Context: There were two books and three pens on the table. *he took books, but he left pens

2.

Rumanian is 'no' for this property: definite plural count nouns in object position must have an article (the enclitic definite article -i.

i.

  • am întâlnit profesorii
    have.AUX.3.SG.INDIC.PRES meet.PST.PRT professor.ART.M.PL
    " I have met the teachers "

A bare noun is excluded.

ii.

  • * am întâlnit profesori
    have.AUX.3.SG.INDIC.PRES meet.PST.PRT professor.M.PL
    Intended " I have met the teachers "

3.

Basque is 'no' for this property: definite plural count nouns in object position must have the plural article (ak), or a demonstrative.

i.a

  • irakasleak topatu nituen
    teacher.A.PL found 1.PL.AUX.PAST
    " I met the teachers " (it can also mean I met teachers)

i.b

  • irakasle hauek topatu nituen
    teacher this.PL found 1.PL.AUX.PAST
    " I met these teachers "

A bare noun is excluded.

ii.

  • * irakaslek topatu nituen
    teacher.PL found 1.PL.AUX.PAST
    Intended: " I met the teachers "

4.

Wolof is 'yes' for this property: definite plural count nouns in object position must have the definite article -i, preceded by a noun class agreement marker (Tamba, Torrence, Zimmermann, 2012).

i.a

  • gis na-a xaj y-i
    see FIN-1S dog NCL-Def
    " I saw the dogs "

i.b

  • jàng na-a tééré y-i
    read FIN-1S book NCL-Def
    " I read the books "

A bare noun is excluded (Tamba, Torrence, Zimmermann, 2012).

ii.a

  • * gis na-a xaj
    see FIN-1S dog
    Intended: " I saw the dogs "

ii.b

  • * jàng na-a tééré
    read FIN-1S book
    Intended: " I read the books "

5.

Russian is '€˜no' for this property: definite plural count nouns in object position are bare. A plural count noun with accusative case is compatible to both an indefinite and a definite interpretation, thus counting as bare.

i.

  • Ja vstretila sobak
    I meet.PST.FEM.SG dog.ACC.PL
    " I met the dogs " (can also mean I met dogs)

ii.

  • Ja Cital(a) knigi
    I read.PST.FEM.SG book.ACC.PL
    " I read the books " (can also mean I read books)

iii.

  • Ja vstretil uCiteljej
    I meet.PST.MASC.SG teacher.ACC.PL
    " I met the teachers " (can also mean I met teachers)

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Akan-twi No AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Ancient Greek No Cristina Guardiano
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
  Words: There were books and pens on the table. ngo lo-zo (go) di syu, daanhai ngo lau-dai-zo (go) di bat.
  Gloss: I take-PFV (that) some book, but I leave-PEF-PFV (go) some pen.
  Translation: I took the books, but I left the pens.
  Comment: di ‘some’ is not a classifier.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
+ Croatian No Daniela Culinovic
  Words: Context: I met two boys and a girl. Pozvala sam djecake.
  Gloss: call.PST.PTCP.FEM have.PRS.1SG boy.ACC.PL
  Translation: I called the boys.
  Contributor: Daniela Culinovic
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
+ English No the property authors
  Words:  I met two boys and a girl. I called the boys
  Contributor: the property authors
  Words: There were two books and three pens on the table. He took the books, but he left the pens
  Contributor: the property authors
  Words: I met two boys and a girl. * I called boys
  Contributor: the property authors
  Words: There were two books and three pens on the table. *he took books, but he left pens
  Contributor: the property authors
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   French No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   French (Ivorian) Yes Akpoué Josué
   Garifuna No Pam Munro
   German No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Gothic Not Yet Set Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek No Giorgos Spathas
  Words: Kale-sa *(ta) ajori-a.
  Gloss: call-1.SG.PST.PFV DEF.PL.ACC boy-PL.ACC
  Translation: I called the boys.
  Comment: Context: I met two boys and a girl.
  Contributor: Giorgos Spathas
   Greek (Calabria) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Pontic) No Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Guébie Yes Hannah Sande
   Hebrew No Assif Am-David
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
+ imbabura quichua yes Pam Munro
  Words: Ishkay jari wambrakunata shuj warmi wambratapash rikurkani. Chay jari wambrakunatami kayarkani.
  Gloss: TWO MALE CHILD.pl.acc ONE FEMALE CHILD.acc.AND SEE.pst.1 THAT MALE CHILD.pl.acc.foc CALL.pst.1
  Translation: I saw two boys and a/one girl. I called to the boys
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Italian No Cristina Guardiano
  Words: c'erano cani e gatti per strada. Ho visto i cani ma non ho visto i gatti
  Gloss: there.were dogs and cats on street. Have.1S seen the dogs but not have.1S seen the cats
  Translation: There were dogs and cats on the street. I saw the dogs but I didn't see the cats
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: c'erano cani e gatti per strada. *Ho visto cani ma non ho visto gatti
  Gloss: there.were dogs and cats on street. Have.1S seen dogs but not have.1S seen cats
  Translation: Intended: There were dogs and cats on the street. I saw the dogs but I didn't see the cats
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) No Amrit Amritavalli
   Kashaya Yes John Gluckman
   KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Korean No Shin-Sook Kim
   Kusaal No Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo Latin has no articles, but a demonstrative is possible
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Hilda Koopman
   Mandarin No Cristina Guardiano
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   nda'nda' No Bertille Baron
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Musa pa eci-zi nana
  Gloss: Musa pound yam-PL DEM
  Translation: Musa pounded these yams.
  Comment: Possible in the context: 'I saw several yams. Musa pounded __ yams.'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Old English No Willem Koopman
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
   Old Saxon No George Walkden
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Nd -a-bukan-ire nende a- ba -siani ba-taru nende O- mu -khana. Nd -a-lang-ire a- ba -siani (abo)
  Gloss: 1sg- PST -meet-PST with AUG- C2 -boy 2.-three and AUG- C6 -girl. 1st-PST-call-PST AUG-2-boy (DEM)
  Translation: I met three boys and a girl. I called the boys
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al Yes Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian No Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Samoan No Hilda Koopman
+ Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu ru pìnni e nu kwatèrnu. Pigghjài i pìnni ma lassài u kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3S two pens and a notebook. Took.1S the pens but left.1S the notebook
  Translation: there were two pens and a notebook on the table. I took the pens but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu ru pìnni e nu kwatèrnu. * Pigghjài pìnni ma lassài kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3S two pens and a notebook. Took.1S pens but left.1S notebook
  Translation: Intended: there were two pens and a notebook on the table. I took the pens but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Spanish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
+ Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta du pullə e na pizzə. Lenə a kutʃinitə li pullə ma a kumpratə li pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena has cooked the chickens but she.has bought the pizzas.
  Translation: in the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena cooked the chickens but she bought the pizzas.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta du pullə e du pizzə. *Lenə a kutʃinitə pullə ma a kumpratə pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are two chickens and two pizzas. Elena has cooked chickens but she.has bought pizzas.
  Translation: in the kitchen there are two chickens and two pizzas. Elena cooked the chickens but she bought the pizzas.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Sozen Ozkan
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
   Wolof No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen It is degraded yet not entirely ungrammatical to use demonstratives in these contexts.