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w07_b Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have an article

Definition
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    Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are five property definitions for nouns with (intrinsically) unique referent in object position:

    can be 'bare', must have an 'article', can have an 'article', must have a 'special article'


w07_b: Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents must have an article in object position


This property is set to 'yes' if an unmodified noun with intrinsically unique reference (e.g. sun, earth, sky, equator, ...) must occur with an 'article' in object position.


For the purposes of this set of properties, by articles we mean:

  1. Items that can (or must) occur with singular count nouns in object position.
  2. [ More contexts]
  3. For languages with no articles: structural differences (i.e. in case-marking) between different types of nouns in object position.
  4. [ More contexts]
  5. Preprefix (noun class) counts as article if it expresses differences between def indef in the given contexts.

Elicitation contexts

John observed ______ moon
A cloud covered ______ sun
The balloon reached ______ sky


Additional instructions

The noun must have an intrinsically unique referent and must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements...)



Examples

1.

English is “yes” for this property: nouns with intrinsically unique reference must have a definite article in object position (i).


i.   a. John observed the moon
     b. A cloud covered the sun
     c. The balloon reached the sky


They cannot be bare (ii).

ii.   a. *John observed moon
      b. *A cloud covered sun
      c. *The balloon reached sky


2.

Rumanian in “yes” for this property: nouns with intrinsically unique reference must have a definite article in object position (i).


i. a. Jon a privit lun-a
John has observed moon.the.f.s
John observed the moon
b. un nor a acoperit soare-le
a cloud has covered sun.the.m.s
a cloud covered the sun
c. balon-ul a atins cer-ul
balloon-the.m.s has touched sky.the.m.s
a balloon touched the sky


They cannot be bare (ii).


ii. a. *Jon a privit luna
John has observed moon.f.s
b. *un nor a acoperit soare
a cloud has covered sun.m.s
c. *balon-ul a atnis cer
balloon-the.m.s has touched sky


3.

Russian in “no” for this property: nouns with intrinsically unique reference are bare in object position (i), and have the same (case) form as (definite and indefinite) singular count nouns in object position (ii).


i. Ivan issledoval lun-u
Ivan investigated Moon-fem.sg.acc
Ivan studied the Moon
ii. Student-ov poprosili narisovat' ljuboe nasekomoe
Student-pl.acc asked.pl draw.inf any.neut insect.neut
Ivan narisoval pčel-u
Ivan draw.pst bee-fem.sg.acc
Students were asked to draw insects. Ivan draw the/a bee

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Akan-twi No AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Ancient Greek No Cristina Guardiano
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
   Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: ik heb gisteren de maan gezien
  Gloss: I have yesterday the moon seen
  Translation: I saw the moon yesterday
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   English Yes the property authors
   Faroese Yes Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   French Yes Hilda Koopman
   French (Ivorian) No Akpoué Josué
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek No Giorgos Spathas
  Words: Thel-o ili-o.
  Gloss: want-1.SG.IMP sun-SG.ACC
  Translation: I want sun.
  Contributor: Giorgos Spathas
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas No examples in textual record.
   Greek (Homer) No Cristina Guardiano
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: wera'ita 'et hashemesh we 'et hayyareach (Deut 4,19)
  Gloss: and you see.CONJ-PRF2SGM ACC.PARTICLE ('et) the sun.ART-NOUN and the moon.ART-NOUN
  Translation: and you see the sun and the moon
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Italian Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Korean No Shin-Sook Kim
+ Kusaal Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: Asibi sa gᴐt nintaŋ la
  Gloss: Asibi PRT observed sun DEF
  Translation: Asibi saw the sun yesterday.
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Nina Radkevich
   Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Spanish Yes Alejandro Rodriguez
  Words: Juan observó la luna
  Gloss: John observe.PST.3SG the.F moon
  Translation: John observed the moon
  Contributor: Alejandro Rodriguez
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: dʒuvannə aguardə la lunə
  Gloss: Giovanni watch.3SG the.SG.F moon.SG.F
  Translation: ‘Giovanni watches the moon.’
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish Yes Sozen Ozkan
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen