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w07_c Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can have an article

Definition
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    Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are five property definitions for nouns with (intrinsically) unique referent in object position:

    can be 'bare', must have an 'article', can have an 'article', must have a 'special article'


w07_c: Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents can have an article in object position


This property is set to 'yes' if an unmodified noun with intrinsically unique reference (e.g. sun, earth, sky, equator, ...) can occur with an article in object position.


For the purposes of this set of properties, by articles we mean:

  1. Items that can (or must) occur with singular count nouns in object position.
  2. [ More contexts]
  3. For languages with no articles: structural differences (i.e. in case-marking) between different types of nouns in object position.
  4. [ More contexts]
  5. Preprefix (noun class) counts as article if it expresses differences between def indef in the given contexts.

Elicitation contexts

John observed ______ moon
A cloud covered ______ sun
The balloon reached ______ sky


Additional instructions

The noun must have an intrinsically unique referent and must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements...)



Examples

1.

English is “no” for this property: nouns with intrinsically unique reference cannot be bare in object position (i).


i.   a. *John observed moon
     b. *A cloud covered sun
     c. *The balloon reached sky


They must have an article (ii).


ii.   a. John observed the moon
      b. A cloud covered the sun
      c. The balloon reached the sky


2.

Rumanian is “no” for this property: nouns with intrinsically unique reference cannot be bare in object position (i).


i. a. *Jon a privit luna
John has observed moon.f.s
b. *un nor a acoperit soare
a cloud has covered sun.m.s
c. *balon-ul a atnis cer
balloon-the.m.s has touched sky


They must have an article (ii).


ii. a. Jon a privit lun-a
John has observed moon.the.f.s
John observed the moon
b. un nor a acoperit soare-le
a cloud has covered sun.the.m.s
a cloud covered the sun
c. balon-ul a atins cer-ul
balloon-the.m.s has touched sky.the.m.s
a balloon touched the sky


3.

Russian in “no” for this property: nouns with intrinsically unique reference are bare in object position (i) and do not show any difference in (case) form with definite or indefinite singular count nouns in object position (ii).


i. Ivan issledoval lun-u
Ivan investigated Moon-fem.sg.acc
Ivan studied the Moon
ii. Student-ov poprosili narisovat' ljuboe nasekomoe
Student-pl.acc asked.pl draw.inf any.neut insect.neut
Ivan narisoval pčel-u
Ivan draw.pst bee-fem.sg.acc
Students were asked to draw insects. Ivan draw the/a bee

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ Akan-twi Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Kofi hu -u awia no.
  Gloss: Kofi see -Pst sun Def
  Translation: ‘Kofi saw the sun.’
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Ancient Greek Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
+ Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: *Tɔŋɛ́ a- ḿ- ɓeŋgɛ́ í sóŋ
  Gloss: 1.Tɔŋɛ́ 1.SM-PRS-look DEF 9.moon
  Translation: intended: 'Tɔŋɛ́ is looking/looks at the moon'
  Comment: The presence of the augment (glossed here as DEF) makes the sentence illicit
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: John guncaat-dou go jyutgwong
  Gloss: John observe-DOU CLF moon
  Translation: John observed the moon.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   English No the property authors
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   French No Hilda Koopman
   French (Ivorian) Yes Akpoué Josué
+ Greek Yes Giorgos Spathas
  Words: Idh-a ton ili-o.
  Gloss: saw-1.SG.PST.PFV DEF.SG.ACC sun-SG.ACC
  Translation: I saw the sun.
  Contributor: Giorgos Spathas
   Greek (Calabria) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Italian No Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Korean No Shin-Sook Kim
   Kusaal No Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   Romanian No Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Nina Radkevich
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Spanish No Alejandro Rodriguez
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Sozen Ozkan
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen