w08_c: Proper names in object position can have an article
This property is set to 'yes' if proper names in object position can: (i) occur with an “article” (or, if the language doesn’t have article, a phonologically weak, deictically unmarked demonstrative). (ii) (for languages without articles but with classifiers, noun classes, case, adpositional endings…) exhibits no structural alternation with noun phrases containing a definite singular count noun.[ More contexts]
I invited John I saw Mary
German is “yes” for this property. In vernacular, spoken varieties (often depending on the register), proper nouns in subject and objects can cooccur with an article (or be bare).
Italian is “yes” for this property. In vernacular (spoken, non high-register) varieties, alternations between proper names occurring with and without articles are attested. Example (i) shows a pattern widespread mostly in Northern Italy: in both object position, proper names of female individuals occur with an article (ia), while proper names of male individuals are bare (ib) (in some local areas of Northern Italy, proper names of male individuals take the article as well).
Example (ii) shows that the alternation is also visible with surnames of “distinguished” individuals.
English is “no” for this property. Proper names in subject and object position are always bare.
(i) I met John
They cannot have an article.
(ii) *I met the John
The following example does not lead to a “yes” setting:
(iii) I met the John that you know Why?
Greek is “no” for this property. Proper nouns in subject and object position must have an article.
They cannot be bare.
|Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman|
|Ancient Greek||Yes||Cristina Guardiano|
|Armenian (Eastern)||Yes||Sona Haroutyunian|
|Basaa||NA||Paul Roger Bassong|
|Calabrian (Northern)||Yes||Giuseppina Silvestri|
|Cantonese (Guangzhou)||No||Zixian Qiu|
|Cypriot Greek||No||Marios Andreou|
|Danish||Not Yet Set||Fabricio M. F. Gerardi|
|Dida Lakota (diéko)||No||Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby|
|English||No||the property authors|
|Faroese||Yes||Hjalmar Páll Petersen||in dialects (Suðuroy) it is possible to have Eg sá John 'I saw John' and also Eg sá Johnin 'I saw John-the'. The same holds for subject position: Johnurin er her 'John-the is here'|
|French (Ivorian)||Yes||Akpoué Josué|
|Greek (Calabria)||No||Cristina Guardiano|
|Greek (Cappadocian)||No||Petros Karatsareas|
|Greek (Homer)||Yes||Cristina Guardiano|
|Hebrew (Biblical)||No||Massimo Gargiulo|
|Italian (Reggiano)||Yes||Giovanni Roversi||Feminine names take the definite article; masculine names do not.|
|Latin||No||Fabricio M. F. Gerardi|
|Oluwanga (Eji)||No||Ceciliane Odangah|
|Portuguese||Yes||Fabricio M. F. Gerardi|
|Romanian||Yes||Monica Alexandrina Irimia|
|Tupi (Ancient)||No||Fabricio M. F. Gerardi|
|Wuhu Chinese||Yes||Zhuo Chen|