w09a Order Art-PN in object position

Untitled Document

    Order of article and proper names in object position

    There are two property definitions for relative order of article and proper names in object position:

    an article precedes the proper name (Order Art--PN), an article follows the proper name (Order PN--Art)

w09_a: Order Art--PN

This property is set to 'yes' if the language has the order Article(or for languages without article, noun class marker, classifier, special case ending,...)-- Proper Name in object position

Elicitation contexts

I invited John
I saw Mary

Additional instructions

  1. This property applies only to proper names (I saw Mary), not to definite singular count nouns (I saw the girl)
  2. Please, do NOT use kinship nouns (like mum, dad, …) to test this property
  3. The proper name must be unmodified (no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no other modifiers …)
  4. [ More contexts]
  5. If there is more than one object position in your language, test this property for each position.
  6. [ More contexts]
  7. If you notice any difference between affirmative and negative contexts (i.e. I saw John vs. I didn’t see John), please comment (or contact us).

NB: A “yes” value for this property does not exclude a yes value for property “w09b Order PN-- Art”



Modern Greek is “yes” for this property. It has the order Article--Proper Name in object position.

(i) sinàndisa ton Janni
meet.PST.1S the.ACC.SING John
I met John


Italian is “yes” for this property. When an article co-occurs with an unmodified proper name in object position, the order is always Article--Proper Name.

(i) ho studiato il Leopardi a scuola
have.1S.PR studied the.M.S Leopardi at school
I have studied Leopardi in school


English is “no” for this property. The order Article--Proper Name is excluded in object position.

(i)     *I invited the John to the party

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
  Words: *Me frɛ -ɛ no Kofi
  Gloss: 1SG call –Pst Def Kofi
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Ancient Greek Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
+ Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: *Mɛ bí-náŋá í Bíkûn
  Gloss:  I PST2-invite DEF PN
  Comment: Proper names cannot combine with the definite article
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   English No the property authors
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   French No Hilda Koopman
   French (Ivorian) Yes Akpoué Josué
   Greek Yes Giorgos Spathas
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Italian Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Korean No Shin-Sook Kim
+ Kusaal No Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: *N sa bᴐᴐl la Asibi
  Gloss: 1sg PRT call DEF Asibi
  Translation: I called Asibi yesterday
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Nina Radkevich
   Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Spanish Yes Alejandro Rodriguez
  Words: Allí viene la Maria
  Gloss: there come.PRSNT.3SG the M.
  Translation: There comes the Mary
  Comment: Only in sub-standard Spanish
  Contributor: Alejandro Rodriguez
+ Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
  Words: i. so mətitə D'Annunzijə ii. *so mətitə lu D'Annunzijə iii. so nkuntratə li Mantenutə
  Gloss:  be.1SG invited D’Annunzio ii. be.1SG invited the.SG.M D’Annunzio iii. be.1SG met the.PL.M Mantenuto
  Translation:  ‘I have invited D’Annunzio.’ ii. be.1SG invited the.SG.M D’Annunzio iii. ‘I have met the Mantenutos.’
  Comment: Only when plural, not even if we are dealing with a proper name which is feminine singular or the name of a person like Mary/John…plurals only both feminine and masculine.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Sozen Ozkan
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen