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w10b Proper names modified by an adjective in object position must have an article in object position

Definition
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    Proper names modified by an adjective in object position

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are three property definitions for proper names modified by an adjective in object position:

    can be bare, must have an article, can have an article


w10b: Proper names modified by an adjective in object position must have an article


This property is set to "yes" if a noun phrase that contains a proper name modified by an adjective in object position must:

  1. occur with an “article” (or, if the language doesn’t have article, a weak, unmarked demonstrative)
  2. (for languages without articles but with classifiers, noun classes, case, adpositional endings…) exhibit no structural alternation with noun phrases containing a definite singular count noun modified by an adjective.
  3. [ More contexts]

Elicitation contexts

I saw the old John
I saw the little Mary


IMPORTANT INFORMATION

  1. The proper name must be modified by an adjective: only test adjectives like old, little, young, nice, beautiful...
  2. If the above adjectives can be prenominal or postnominal in your language, test each position keeping the adjective same.
  3. [ More contexts]
  4. If there is more than one possible order of proper names and the above adjectives, and there is an asymmetry between whether they can be bare or not, please comment (or contact us)
  5. [ More contexts]

Additional instructions

  1. This property applies only to proper names (I saw Mary), not to definite singular count nouns (I saw the young girl)
  2. Please, do NOT use kinship nouns (like mum, dad, …) to test this property
  3. If there is more than one object position in your language, test this property for each position.
  4. If you notice any difference between affirmative and negative contexts (i.e. I saw the old John vs. I didn’t see the old John), please comment (or contact us).

Examples

1.

Modern Greek is “yes” for this property. Proper names modified by an adjective in object position must have the definite article.


(i) (a) sinàndisa ton jèro Jànni
meet.PST.1S the.ACC.S.M old.ACC.S.M John
I met old John
(b) sinàndisa ton Jànni ton jèro
meet.PST.1S the.ACC.S.M John the.ACC.S.M old.ACC.S.M
I met old John


They cannot be bare.


(ii) (a) *sinàndisa jèro Jànni
meet.PST.1S old.ACC.S.M John
Intended:I met old John
(b) *sinàndisa Jànni jèro


2.

Italian is “yes” for this property. Proper names modified by an adjective in object position must have an article when they occur to the right of the adjective (Longobardi 1994).


(i) ho incontrato il vecchio Gianni
have.1S.PR met the.M.S old.M.S Gianni
I met old John


They cannot be bare.


(ii) *ho incontrato vecchio Gianni
have.1S.PR met old.M.S Gianni
Intended:I met old John


Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can be bare when they occur to the left of the adjective. (Longobardi 1994).


(iii) ho incontrato Gianni vecchio
have.1S.PR met Gianni old.M.S
I met old John


3.

English is “no” for this property. Proper names in object position can be bare.


(i)     they saw old John


They can have an article.


(ii)    they saw the old John

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ Akan-twi Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: * Me- hu -u Togo -ni John no
  Gloss: *1SG- see –Pst Togo -person John Det
  Translation: Even for nationality adjectives, which come before the noun, it has to come after the proper noun.
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Me- hu -u John Togo -ni no
  Gloss: 1SG- see –Pst John Togo -person Det.
  Translation: ‘I saw John, the Togolese. I saw the Togolese John.'
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Me- hu -u John tumtum no
  Gloss: 1SG- see –Pst John black Def.
  Translation: ‘I saw the dark John.’
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Ancient Greek No Cristina Guardiano
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
   English No the property authors
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   French (Ivorian) No Akpoué Josué
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Greek Yes Giorgos Spathas
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas No examples in the textual record.
   Greek (Homer) No Cristina Guardiano
   Hebrew (Biblical) NA Massimo Gargiulo
   Italian No Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Korean No Shin-Sook Kim
   Kusaal No Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Nina Radkevich
   Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Spanish Yes Alejandro Rodriguez
  Words: Ví a la pequeña Maria
  Gloss: See.PST.1SG to the.F little Mary
  Translation: I saw the little Mary
  Contributor: Alejandro Rodriguez
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish Yes Sozen Ozkan
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen