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w20a Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare

Definition
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    Singular count nouns in vocative phrases

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are five property definitions for singular count nouns in vocative phrases:

    can be bare, must have an article, can have an article, must have a special vocative marker, can have a special vocative marker


w20a: Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare


This property is set to "yes" if an unmodified morphologically singular count noun in a vocative phrase:

  1. lacks an “article” (or, if the language doesn’t have article, a phonologically weak, deictically unmarked demonstrative).
  2. (for languages without articles but with classifiers, noun classes, case, adpositional endings…) exhibits no structural alternation with noun phrases containing a singular count noun in object position.



Elicitation Contexts


_________ lady! Please, come here!
I am sorry, _________ man, I cannot answer your question.


Additional instructions

  1. The singular count noun must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements ...)
  2. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. Proper names (John! Please, come here!)
    2. kinship nouns (mom! Please, come here!)
    3. Names of God(s) used in prayers (bless us, o Lord)
    4. Nouns referring to institutional offices (please, Mr. Presidentcome to South Carolina!)

Examples

NO cases of “no” value, yet.


1.

English is “yes” for this property. Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare.


(i)     lady! Can you please come here?
(ii)    I’m afraid, sir, that my coyote is nibbling on your leg (Schaden 2010)
(iii)   come here, boy!


2.

Italian is “yes” for this property. Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare.


(i) signora! Può venire qui, per piacere?
lady! can come here, please?
Lady! Can you please come here?


(ii) credo proprio di no, ragazzo
believe.1S really of not, boy
I really don’t believe so, boy


3.

Catalan is “yes” for this property. Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare.


(i) tio! M’agrada la samarreta que portes (Espinal 2013: 3, ex 9a)
pal me.like.3S the T-shirt that wear.2S
man! I like your T-shirt!


4.

Romanian is "yes" for this property. Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare.


(i) pisică, vino aici! (Irimia, p.c.)
cat come here
cat, come here!


5.

Basque is “yes” for this property. Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare (Artiagoitia 2012: 36).


(i) haika, mutil, jeiki hadi!
rise boy get.up AUX
rise, boy, get up!


(ii) etorri hona ume/laguntxo!
come here child/friend
come here, child/friend!


(iii) zelan zaude, adiskide?
How are friend
How are you, friend?

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Akan-twi Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: sinsaang, ceng gwolei
  Gloss: sir please come-here
  Translation: Sir, please come here.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: ŋɔ̰̂ ɪ̀ kù dā
  Gloss: woman you stay there
  Translation: woman! You’re ok ?
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
   English Yes the property authors
   French Yes Hilda Koopman
   French (Ivorian) Yes Akpoué Josué
+ Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: guþ meins, guþ meins, duhve mis bilaist?
  Gloss: god.VOC my, god my, why I.DAT abandon.2.SG.PRF
  Translation: My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? (Mt 27: 46)
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Greek Yes Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: ʝelás kulák ʝelás (Dawkins 1916: 436)
  Gloss: laugh.PRS.2SG whelp.SG.VOC laugh.PRS.2SG
  Translation: you laugh, whelp, you laugh
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo "The person that is addressed (vocative), since it is always determinate, should always have the article; in fact the article is often omitted, especially in poetry or in loft prose. Osons never has the article" (Muraoka)
  Comment: "The person that is addressed (vocative), since it is always determinate, should always have the article; in fact the article is often omitted, especially in poetry or in loft prose" (Muraoka)
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Italian Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Korean Yes Shin-Sook Kim
   Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Mberera, John, si - e-nyala khujiba li -rebo liao tawe.
  Gloss: Sorry, John NEG-1sg-can answer C5-question your NEG
  Translation: I am sorry, John, I cannot answer your question.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian Yes Nina Radkevich
   Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: siŋo, kə pu mənə a lu merkatə?
  Gloss: Miss that can come.3SG to the.SG.M market.SG.M
  Translation: ‘Miss, can you come to the market?’
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish Yes Sozen Ozkan
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa Yes Xiujie Ma