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w20b Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have an article

Definition
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    Singular count nouns in vocative phrases

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are five property definitions for singular count nouns in vocative phrases:

    can be bare, must have an article, can have an article, must have a special vocative marker, can have a special vocative marker


w20b: Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have an article


This property is set to "yes" if an unmodified morphologically singular count noun in a vocative phrase must:

  1. occur with an “article” (or, if the language doesn’t have article, a phonologically weak, deictically unmarked demonstrative)
  2. (for languages without articles but with classifiers, noun classes, case, adpositional endings…) exhibits no structural alternation with noun phrases containing a definite singular count noun in object position.



Elicitation Contexts

_________ lady! Please, come here!
I am sorry, _________ man, I cannot answer your question.


Additional instructions

  1. The singular count noun must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements ...)
  2. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. Proper names (John! Please, come here!)
    2. kinship nouns (mom! Please, come here!)
    3. Names of God(s) used in prayers (bless us, o Lord)
    4. Nouns referring to institutional offices (please, Mr. Presidentcome to South Carolina!)

Examples

NO cases of “yes” value, yet.


1.

English is “no” for this property. Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare.


(i)     lady! Can you please come here?
(ii)    I’m afraid, sir, that my coyote is nibbling on your leg (Schaden 2010)
(iii)   come here, boy!


2.

Italian is “no” for this property. Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare.


(i) signora! Può venire qui, per piacere?
lady! can come here, please?
Lady! Can you please come here?


(ii) credo proprio di no, ragazzo
believe.1S really of not, boy
I really don’t believe so, boy


(iii) come stai, amico?
how stay.2S friend
how are you, friend?


3.

Romanian is "no" for this property. Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can occur with no article. They can either be bare (i) or occur with a special vocative marker (ii).


(i) pisică, vino aici! (Irimia, p.c.)
cat come here
cat, come here!


(ii) copile, nu mai striga! (Espinal 2013)
child.VOC no more shout
Child! Don’t shut anymore!


4.

Catalan is “no” for this property. Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare


(i) tio! M’agrada la samarreta que portes (Espinal 2013: 3, ex 9a)
pal me.like.3S the T-shirt that wear.2S
man! I like your T-shirt!


5.

Basque is “no” for this property. Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare (Artiagoitia 2012: 36).


(i) haika, mutil, jeiki hadi!
rise boy get.up AUX
rise, boy, get up!


(ii) etorri hona ume/laguntxo!
come here child/friend
come here, child/friend!


(iii) zelan zaude, adiskide?
How are friend
How are you, friend?

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Akan-twi Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   English No the property authors
   French No Hilda Koopman
   French (Ivorian) No Akpoué Josué
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Greek No Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Greek (Calabria) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: ben-my 'attah hanna'ar (1 Sam 17,58)
  Gloss: son of-who.NOUN-PRON you.PRON the young man.ART-VOC NOUN
  Translation: Whose son art thou, thou young man?
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Italian No Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Korean No Shin-Sook Kim
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
  Words:  O- mu -khana! Nochama, itsa-kho ano!
  Gloss: AUG- C1 -lady Please come here
  Translation: Lady! Please, come here!
  Comment: NB: the augment is obligatory.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words:  Mberera, mu-siani, si - e-nyala khujiba li -rebo liao tawe.
  Gloss: Sorry, C6-man NEG-1sg-can answer C5-question your NEG
  Translation: I am sorry, man, I cannot answer your question.
  Comment: In this type of example, the augment seems to be absent. Further work is needed to determine the distribution of the augment here.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian No Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Nina Radkevich
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Sozen Ozkan
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma