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W20d Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker

Definition
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    Singular count nouns in vocative phrases

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are five property definitions for singular count nouns in vocative phrases:

    can be bare, must have an article, can have an article, must have a special vocative marker, can have a special vocative marker


w20d: Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker


This property is set to "yes" if an unmodified morphologically singular count noun in a vocative phrase must occur with a special vocative marker.



Elicitation Context

_________ lady! Please, come here!
I am sorry, _________ man, I cannot answer your question.


Additional instructions

  1. The singular count noun must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements ...)
  2. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. Proper names (John! Please, come here!)
    2. kinship nouns (mom! Please, come here!)
    3. Names of God(s) used in prayers (bless us, o Lord)
    4. Nouns referring to institutional offices (please, Mr. President, come to South Carolina!)

Examples

1.

Arabic is “yes” for this property. Singular count nouns in vocatives phrases must have a vocative particle. The most frequently used is .


(i) a. ustadhu!
VOCPART teacher
Hey, teacher!
b. *ustadhu!
teacher
Intended:Hey, teacher!


2.

Rumanian is “yes” for this property. The “vocative marker” –e is obligatory with some masculine singular count nouns in vocative phrases: for instance, the noun copil cannot occur without the vocative marker in vocative phrases.


(i) a. *copil, vino aici!
child come here
Intended: child, come here!
b. *copilul, vino aici!
child.the come here
Intended: child, come here!
c. copil(ul)e, vino aici!
child.the.VOC come here
child, come here!


(ii) a. *copil, nu mai striga!
child not more shout
Intended: child, don’t shut anymore!
b. copilule, nu mai striga!
child.ART.VOC not more shout
child, don’t shut anymore!°

°Espinal (2011: 6, es.18b).

[ More examples]

3.

English is “no” for this property. Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can occur without any special vocative marker.


(i) boy, pass me the ball!


4.

Italian is “no” for this property. Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can occur without any special vocative marker.


(i) ragazzo, passami la palla!
boy pass.to.me the ball
boy, pass me the ball!


5.

Basque is “no” for this property. Singular count nouns in vocative phrases occur without any special vocative marker (Artiagoitia 2012: 36).


(i) haika, mutil, jeiki hadi!
rise boy get.up AUX
rise, boy, get up!

(ii) etorri hona ume/laguntxo!
come here child/friend
come here, child/friend!

(iii) zelan zaude, adiskide?
how are friend
How are you, friend?

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Akan-twi No AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
   Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   English No the property authors
   French No Hilda Koopman
   Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi ("yes" when available). Case morphology. The vocative, exists only In the singular of some declension classes. It is sometimes equal to the nominative or the accusative.
   Greek Yes Dimitris Michelioudakis obligatory case morphology
   Greek (Calabria) No Cristina Guardiano
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas Vocative inflectional ending only in one, historically masculine inflectional class
  Words: aðelfé pú ne pém (Dawkins 1916: 320)
  Gloss: brother.SG.VOC where FUT go.PRS.1PL
  Translation: brother, where are we going?
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Italian No Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Korean No Shin-Sook Kim
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Nina Radkevich
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Sozen Ozkan
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma