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w20e Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker

Definition
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    Singular count nouns in vocative phrases

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are five property definitions for singular count nouns in vocative phrases:

    can be bare, must have an article, can have an article, must have a special vocative marker, can have a special vocative marker


w20e: Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker


This property is set to "yes" if an unmodified morphologically singular count noun in a vocative phrase can occur with a special vocative marker



Elicitation Contexts

_________ lady! Please, come here!
I am sorry, _________ man, I cannot answer your question.


Additional instructions

  1. The singular count noun must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements ...)
  2. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. Proper names (John! Please, come here!)
    2. kinship nouns (mom! Please, come here!)
    3. Names of God(s) used in prayers (bless us, o Lord)
    4. Nouns referring to institutional offices (please, Mr. President, come to South Carolina!)

Examples

1.

English is “yes” for this property. Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have the vocative marker hey.


(i) hey boy, pass me the ball!


2.

Italian is “yes” for this property. Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have the vocative particle hey (or o, in literary styles).


(i) (a) hey ragazzo, passami la palla!
VOCPART boy pass.to.me the ball
Hey boy, pass me the ball!
(b) o notte, a me più chiara e più beata
VOCPART night to me more clear and more peaceful
O night! To me clearer and more peaceful (G. Stampa, Rime)


3.

Catalan is “yes” for this property. Singular count nouns in vocative phrases optionally take the vocative particle ei (Espinal 2011: 3, ex 9a).


(i) ei tio! M’agrada la samarreta que portes
VM man to.me.like.3S the T-shirt that wear.2S
Hey man! I like your T-shirt!


4.

German is “yes” for this property. Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have the vocative marker hey.


(i) hey Wikinger, runter von meinem Schiff! (Schaden 2010)
hey viking down from my ship
hey Viking, down from my ship!


5.

Romanian is "yes" for this property. Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker.


(i) pisico, vino aici!
cat.VOC come here
cat, come here!

[ More examples]

6.

Arabic is “no” for this property. Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have the vocative particle .


(i) yaa ustadhu!
VOCPART teacher
Hey, teacher!


7.

Basque is “no” for this property. Singular count nouns in vocative phrases do not take any vocative particle (Artiagoitia 2012: 36).


(i) haika, mutil, jeiki hadi!
rise boy get.up AUX
rise, boy, get up!

(ii) etorri hona ume/laguntxo!
come here child/friend
come here, child/friend!

(iii) zelan zaude, adiskide?
how are friend
How are you, friend?

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Akan-twi Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
   Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
   English Yes the property authors
   French Yes Hilda Koopman
   Greek Yes Dimitris Michelioudakis optional vocative particles (e.g. 'ε', (rare/archaic) 'o')
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas No examples in the textual record.
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Italian Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Korean Yes Shin-Sook Kim
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi I
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Ewe mu -khana! Nochama, itsa-kho ano!
  Gloss: You C1 -lady Please come here
  Translation: You Lady! Please, come here!
  Comment: Singular count nouns in initial vocative phrases can be prec eded by unmarked pronoun “ you ”. It is not clear if this should count as a special vocative marker or not.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Nina Radkevich
   Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: o siŋo, kə pu mənə a lu merkatə?
  Gloss: hey Miss that can come.3SG to the.SG.M market.SG.M
  Translation: ‘Hey miss, can you come to the market?’
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Sozen Ozkan
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa Yes Xiujie Ma