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w21a Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare

Definition
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    Proper names in vocative phrases

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are five property definitions for singular count nouns in vocative phrases:

    can be bare, must have an article, can have an article, must have a special vocative marker, can have a special vocative marker


w21a: Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare


This property is set to "yes" if an unmodified proper name in a vocative phrase :

  1. lacks an “article” (or, if the language doesn’t have article, a weak, unmarked demonstrative).
  2. (for languages without articles but with classifiers, noun classes, case, adpositional endings…) exhibits no structural alternation with proper names in object position.


Elicitation Contexts

_________ Mary, come with me!
I am sorry, _________ John, I cannot answer your question.


Additional instructions

  1. This property applies only to proper names (Mary, John).
  2. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. Singular count nouns (boy! come here!)
    2. kinship nouns (mom! Please, come here!)
    3. Names of God(s) used in prayers (bless us, o Lord)
    4. Nouns referring to institutional offices (please, Mr. President, come to South Carolina!)
  3. The proper name must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements ...)
    [ More contexts ]

Examples

1.

English is “yes” for this property. Plural nouns in vocative phrases can be bare.


(i)     Thank you, Mary!
(ii)    I’m afraid, John, that your grammar leaks
(iii)   come here, Marcus!


2.

Italian is “yes” for this property. Plural nouns in vocative phrases can be bare.


(i) Mario, passami la palla!
Mario pass.to.me the ball
Mario, pass me the ball!


(ii) come stai, Claudia?
how stay.2S Claudia
how are you, Claudia?


3.

Rumanian is “yes” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare (Hill 2011: 2, ex 1a).


(i) Ioane, vino-ncoa!
Ion.VOC come-here
Ion, come here!


4.

Albanian is “yes” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare (Hill 2011: 6 ex 3b).


(i) Azim!
Azim
Azim!


5.

Arabic is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases must have the vocative particle yā.


(i) yaa Muhammad!
VOCPART Muhammad
Hey, Muhammad!


6.

Korean is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocatives phrases must have the vocative particle -a/-ya.


(i) Tongmin a, ne eti kani?
Milan VOCPART you where go.Q
Milan, where are you going?


(ii) Dongbae-ya, meo hae
Dongbae-VOCPART what do
What are you doing, Dongbae?


7.

Bulgarian is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases must be accompanied either by a definite article (i.a) or by a vocative particle/ending (ii.b/c) (Hill 2013: 56, ex 10).


(i) a. Ivanǔt,...
John.the
John,...
b. Ivane,...
John.VOC
c. Ivanebe,...
John.VOC.VOCPART
d. *Ivan,...
John

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ Akan-twi Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Aberantie mepaakyew bra ha.
  Gloss: Young.man please come here!
  Translation: Young man, please come here’
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Ama, mepaakyew bra ha.
  Gloss: Ama, please come here
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: Mary, gan ngo lei (la)
  Gloss: Mary with I come (PRT)
  Translation: Mary, come with me!
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
   Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
   English Yes the property authors
   Faroese Yes Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   French Yes Hilda Koopman
   Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Only if there is no vocative mark for that declension.
   Greek Yes Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: ɣarelém írtan tría túrtʃi (Kostakis 1959: 48)
  Gloss: PN.SG.VOC come.PST.3PL three Turk.PL.NOM
  Translation: Garelemis, three Turks came
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo Proper nouns never take the article, apart from some whose appellative value is still perceived to be present (Muraoka)
   Italian Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Korean Yes Shin-Sook Kim
   Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words:  Mary, itsa ano!
  Gloss: Mary, come here!
  Translation: Mary, come here!
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian Yes Nina Radkevich
   Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: dʒuva, kə pu mənə a lu merkatə?
  Gloss: Giova that can come.3SG to the.SG.M market.SG.M
  Translation: ‘Giova, can you come to the market?’
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish Yes Sozen Ozkan
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa Yes Xiujie Ma