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w21b Proper names in vocative phrases must have an article

Definition
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    Plural count nouns in vocative phrases

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are five property definitions for singular count nouns in vocative phrases:

    can be bare, must have an article, can have an article, must have a special vocative marker, can have a special vocative marker


w21b: Proper names in vocative phrases must have an article


This property is set to "yes" if an unmodified proper name in a vocative phrase must:

  1. occur with an “article” (or, if the language doesn’t have article, a phonologically weak, deictically unmarked demonstrative)
  2. (for languages without articles but with classifiers, noun classes, case, adpositional endings…) exhibits no structural alternation with proper names in object position.


Elicitation Contexts

_________ Mary, come with me!
I am sorry, _________ John, I cannot answer your question.


Additional instructions

  1. This property applies only to proper names (Mary, John).
  2. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. Singular count nouns (boy! come here!)
    2. kinship nouns (mom! Please, come here!)
    3. Names of God(s) used in prayers (bless us, o Lord)
    4. Nouns referring to institutional offices (please, Mr. President, come to South Carolina!)
  3. The proper name must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements ...)
    [ More contexts ]

Examples

1.

English is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare.


(i)     thank you, Mary!
(ii)    I’m afraid, John, that your grammar leaks
(iii)   come here, Marcus!


2.

Italian is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare.


(i) Mario, passami la palla!
Mario pass.to.me the ball
Mario, pass me the ball!

(ii) come stai, Claudia?
how stay.2S Claudia
how are you, Claudia?


3.

Rumanian is "no" for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare (Hill 2011: 2, ex 1a).


(i) Ioane vino-ncoa!
Ion.VOC come-here
Hey Ion, come here!


4.

Albanian is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare (Hill 2011: 6 ex 3b).


(i) Azim!
Azim
Azim!

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Akan-twi No AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   English No the property authors
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   French No Hilda Koopman
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Greek No Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Greek (Calabria) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Italian No Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Korean No Shin-Sook Kim
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian No Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Nina Radkevich
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Sozen Ozkan
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma