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w21c Proper names in vocative phrases can have an article

Definition
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    Proper names in vocative phrases

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are five property definitions for singular count nouns in vocative phrases:

    can be bare, must have an article, can have an article, must have a special vocative marker, can have a special vocative marker


w21c: Proper names in vocative phrases can have an article


This property is set to "yes" if an unmodified proper name in a vocative phrase can:

  1. occur with an “article” (or, if the language doesn’t have article, a phonologically weak, deictically unmarked demonstrative)
  2. (for languages without articles but with classifiers, noun classes, case, adpositional endings…) exhibits no structural alternation with noun phrases containing a definite singular count noun modified by an adjective.


Elicitation Contexts

_________ Mary, come with me!
I am sorry, _________ John, I cannot answer your question.


Additional instructions

  1. This property applies only to proper names (Mary, John).
  2. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. Singular count nouns (boy! come here!)
    2. kinship nouns (mom! Please, come here!)
    3. Names of God(s) used in prayers (bless us, o Lord)
    4. Nouns referring to institutional offices (please, Mr. President, come to South Carolina!)
  3. The proper name must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements ...)
    [ More contexts ]

Examples

1.

Romanian is "yes" for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases can have an article (Hill 2007: 12b; Hill 2011: 7, ex 5, adapted).


(i) Băsescule, vezi ce faci!
Băsescu.the.MASC.VOC see.2S what do.2S
Mind what you’re doing, Băsescu!
(ii) măi Ionele vino-ncoa!
hey Ion.the.VOC come-here
Hey Ion, come here!


2.

Bulgarian is “yes” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases can have an article (Hill 2013: 56, ex 10).


(i) Ivanǔt,...
John.the
John,...

3.

English is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases must be bare.


(i)     thank you, Mary!
(ii)    I’m afraid, John, that your grammar leaks
(iii)   come here, Marcus!


They cannot have an article.


(iv) (a) *thank you, the Mary!
(b) *thank you, a Mary!
(v) (a) *I’m afraid, the John, that your grammar leaks
(b) *I’m afraid, a John, that your grammar leaks
(vi) (a) *come here, the Marcus!
(b) *come here, a Marcus!


4.

Italian is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases must be bare.


(i) Mario, passami la palla!
Mario pass.to.me the ball
Mario, pass me the ball!


(ii) come stai, Claudia?
how stay.2S Claudia
how are you, Claudia?


They cannot have an article.


(iii) (a) *il Mario, passami la palla!
the Mario pass.to.me the ball
Intended:Mario, pass me the ball!
(b) *un Mario, passami la palla!
a Mario pass.to.me the ball
Intended:Mario, pass me the ball!


(iv) (a) *come stai, la Claudia?
how stay.2S the Claudia
Intended: how are you, Claudia?
(b) *come stai, una Claudia?
how stay.2S a Claudia
Intended: how are you, Claudia?


5.

Catalan is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases cannot have an article (Espinal 2011: 3, ex 8a and 8c, adapted.


(i) ei Joan! M’agrada la samarreta que portes
VM Joan to.me.like.3S the T-shirt that wear.2S
Hey Joan! I like your T-shirt!


6.

Albanian is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases must be bare (Hill 2011: 6 ex 3b).


(i) Azim!
Azim
Azim!


They cannot have an article (Hill 2011: 6 ex 3b).


(ii) Azimi!
Azim.the
Intended: Azim!

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Akan-twi No AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   English No the property authors
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   French No Hilda Koopman
   Greek No Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Greek (Calabria) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Italian No Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Korean No Shin-Sook Kim
   Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Nina Radkevich
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
+ Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *lu dʒuva, kə pu mənə a lu merkatə?
  Gloss: the.SG.M Giova that can come.3SG to the.SG.M market.SG.M
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Sozen Ozkan
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma