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w21d Proper names in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker

Definition
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    Proper names in vocative phrases

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are five property definitions for singular count nouns in vocative phrases:

    can be bare, must have an article, can have an article, must have a special vocative marker, can have a special vocative marker


w21d: Proper names in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker


This property is set to "yes" if an unmodified proper name in a vocative phrase must have a special vocative marker .


Elicitation Contexts

_________ Mary, come with me!
I am sorry, _________ John, I cannot answer your question.


Additional instructions

  1. This property applies only to proper names (Mary, John).
  2. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. Singular count nouns (boy! come here!)
    2. kinship nouns (mom! Please, come here!)
    3. Names of God(s) used in prayers (bless us, o Lord)
    4. Nouns referring to institutional offices (please, Mr. President, come to South Carolina!)
  3. The proper name must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements ...)
    [ More contexts ]

Examples

1.

Arabic is “yes” for this property. Proper names in vocatives phrases must have the vocative particle yā.


(i) a. Muhammad!
VOCPART Muhammad
Hey, Muhammad!
b. * Muhammad!
Muhammad
Intended: hey, Muhammad!


2.

Greek is “yes” for this property. Certain proper names in vocative phrases must occur with a special “vocative case” ending:


<
(i) a. O Kósta ti ginese?
VOC Kostas.VOM what happens
Kosta, what’s up?
b. *Kóstas ti ginese?
Kostas.NOM what happens
Intended :Kosta, what’s up?

3.

Umbundu is “yes”for this property. The vocative prefix –a is obligatory “for nouns with [+human] features” (Hill 2007: 2082; ex 7a).


(i) Epa a Pedro, enda pi?
You-SG.FAM you.HUM Pedro go.2S where
Pedro, man, where do you go?


4.

English is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases can occur without any special vocative marker.


(i)     John, pass me the ball!


5.

Italian is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases can occur without any special vocative marker.


(i) Gianni, passami la palla!
John pass.to.me the ball
John, pass me the ball!


6.

Rumanian is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases can occur without any special vocative marker (Hill 2011: 2 and 7, ex 1b and 5).


(i) Ion, vino-ncoa!
Ion come-here
Come here, Ion!


7.

Bulgarian is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases must be accompanied either by a definite article (ii.a) or by a vocative particle/ending (ii.b/c) (Hill 2013: 56, ex 10).


(i) (a) Ivanǔt,...
John.the
John,...
(b) Ivane,...
John.VOC
John,...
(c) Ivanebe,...
John.VOC.VOCPART
John,...

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Akan-twi No AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   English No the property authors
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   French No Hilda Koopman
   Greek Yes Dimitris Michelioudakis obligatory case morphology
   Greek (Calabria) No Cristina Guardiano
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas Vocative inflectional ending only in one, historically masculine inflectional class
  Words: pasa-θóðore ap esé ci móno póman ci etá niʃtiká (Kostakis 1962: 115)
  Gloss: PN.SG.VOC ABL 2SG.ACC and only remain.PST.3PL and DEM.PROX.PL.NOM starved.PL.NOM
  Translation: Theodoros Pasha, on your account they were left starving
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Italian No Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Korean No Shin-Sook Kim
   Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Case morphology if singular -o stem.
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian No Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Nina Radkevich
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Sozen Ozkan
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma