w21d: Proper names in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker
_________ Mary, come with me! I am sorry, _________ John, I cannot answer your question.
Arabic is “yes” for this property. Proper names in vocatives phrases must have the vocative particle yā.
Greek is “yes” for this property. Certain proper names in vocative phrases must occur with a special “vocative case” ending:
Umbundu is “yes”for this property. The vocative prefix –a is obligatory “for nouns with [+human] features” (Hill 2007: 2082; ex 7a).
English is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases can occur without any special vocative marker.
(i) John, pass me the ball!
Italian is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases can occur without any special vocative marker.
Rumanian is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases can occur without any special vocative marker (Hill 2011: 2 and 7, ex 1b and 5).
Bulgarian is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases must be accompanied either by a definite article (ii.a) or by a vocative particle/ending (ii.b/c) (Hill 2013: 56, ex 10).
|Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman|
|Basaa||No||Paul Roger Bassong|
|Calabrian (Northern)||Yes||Giuseppina Silvestri|
|Cantonese (Guangzhou)||No||Zixian Qiu|
|Cypriot Greek||Yes||Marios Andreou|
|Danish||No||Fabricio M. F. Gerardi|
|Dida Lakota (diéko)||No||Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby|
|English||No||the property authors|
|Faroese||No||Hjalmar Páll Petersen|
|Greek||Yes||Dimitris Michelioudakis||obligatory case morphology|
|Greek (Calabria)||No||Cristina Guardiano|
|Greek (Cappadocian)||Yes||Petros Karatsareas||Vocative inflectional ending only in one, historically masculine inflectional class|
|Hebrew (Biblical)||No||Massimo Gargiulo|
|Italian (Reggiano)||No||Giovanni Roversi|
|Latin||Yes||Fabricio M. F. Gerardi||Case morphology if singular -o stem.|
|Oluwanga (Eji)||No||Ceciliane Odangah|
|Portuguese||No||Fabricio M. F. Gerardi|
|Romanian||No||Monica Alexandrina Irimia|
|Tupi (Ancient)||No||Fabricio M. F. Gerardi|
|Wuhu Chinese||No||Zhuo Chen|