w21e: Proper names in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker
_________ Mary, come with me! I am sorry, _________ John, I cannot answer your question.
English is “yes” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases can have the vocative marker hey.
(i) hey John, pass me the ball!
Italian is “yes” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases can have the vocative particle hey (or o, in literary styles or prayers).
Catalan is “yes” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases optionally take the vocative particle ei (Espinal 2011: 3, ex 9a).
Rumanian is “yes” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases can occur with special vocative markers (Hill 2011: 2 ex 1b; 10 ex 9).
° Notice that, when a vocative marker (i.e. măi, bă, fă, …) appears, the proper name must be in the vocative case (ending –e). (Hill 2011, 7).
Bulgarian is “yes” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases must be accompanied either by a vocative particle/ending (ii.a/b) or by a definite article (ia) (Hill 2013: 56, ex 10).
Korean is “yes” for this property. Proper names in vocatives phrases can be bare or have the vocative particle -a/-ya.
Arabic is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases must have the vocative particle yā.
Umbundu is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases must have the vocative prefix –a, that is obligatory “for nouns with [+human] features” (Hill 2007: 2082; ex 7a).
|Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman|
|Basaa||Yes||Paul Roger Bassong|
|Calabrian (Northern)||No||Giuseppina Silvestri|
|Cantonese (Guangzhou)||No||Zixian Qiu|
|Cypriot Greek||Yes||Marios Andreou|
|Dida Lakota (diéko)||Yes||Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby|
|English||Yes||the property authors|
|Faroese||Yes||Hjalmar Páll Petersen|
|Greek||Yes||Dimitris Michelioudakis||optional vocative particles (e.g. 'ε', (rare/archaic) 'o')|
|Greek (Calabria)||Yes||Cristina Guardiano|
|Greek (Cappadocian)||Yes||Petros Karatsareas||No examples in the textual record.|
|Hebrew (Biblical)||No||Massimo Gargiulo|
|Italian (Reggiano)||Yes||Giovanni Roversi|
|Latin||Not Yet Set||Fabricio M. F. Gerardi|
|Oluwanga (Eji)||Yes||Ceciliane Odangah|
|Portuguese||Yes||Fabricio M. F. Gerardi|
|Romanian||Yes||Monica Alexandrina Irimia|
|Tupi (Ancient)||Yes||Fabricio M. F. Gerardi|
|Wuhu Chinese||Yes||Zhuo Chen|