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w21e Proper names in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker

Definition
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    Proper names in vocative phrases

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are five property definitions for singular count nouns in vocative phrases:

    can be bare, must have an article, can have an article, must have a special vocative marker, can have a special vocative marker


w21e: Proper names in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker


This property is set to "yes" if an unmodified proper name in a vocative phrase can occur with a special vocative marker.



Elicitation Contexts

_________ Mary, come with me!
I am sorry, _________ John, I cannot answer your question.


Additional instructions

  1. This property applies only to proper names (Mary, John).
  2. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. Singular count nouns (boy! come here!)
    2. kinship nouns (mom! Please, come here!)
    3. Names of God(s) used in prayers (bless us, o Lord)
    4. Nouns referring to institutional offices (please, Mr. President, come to South Carolina!)
  3. The proper name must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements ...)
    [ More contexts ]

Examples

1.

English is “yes” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases can have the vocative marker hey.


(i)     hey John, pass me the ball!


2.

Italian is “yes” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases can have the vocative particle hey (or o, in literary styles or prayers).


(i) a. hey Gianni, passami la palla!
hey John pass.to.me the ball
Hey John, pass me the ball!
b. o Maria, vieni qui!
VOCPART Maria come.2S here
Mary, come here!


3.

Catalan is “yes” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases optionally take the vocative particle ei (Espinal 2011: 3, ex 9a).


(i) ei Joan! M’agrada la samarreta que portes
VM Joan to.me.like.3S the T-shirt that wear.2S
Hey Joan! I like your T-shirt!


4.

Rumanian is “yes” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases can occur with special vocative markers (Hill 2011: 2 ex 1b; 10 ex 9).


(i) a. măi Ione°, vino-ncoa!
VOCPART Ion.VOC come-here
Come here, Ion!
b. Marine
VOCPART Marin.VOC
Marin,...
c. Mario
VOCPART Mario.VOC
Mario,...


° Notice that, when a vocative marker (i.e. măi, bă, fă, …) appears, the proper name must be in the vocative case (ending –e). (Hill 2011, 7).


5.

Bulgarian is “yes” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases must be accompanied either by a vocative particle/ending (ii.a/b) or by a definite article (ia) (Hill 2013: 56, ex 10).


(i) a. Ivane,...
John.VOC
John,...
b. Ivanebe,...
John.VOC.VOCPART
John,...
c. Ivanǔt,...
John.the
John,...



6.

Korean is “yes” for this property. Proper names in vocatives phrases can be bare or have the vocative particle -a/-ya.


(i) a. Tongmin a, ne eti kani?
Milan VOCPART you where go.Q
Milan, where are you going?
(i) b. Tongmin, ne eti kani?
Milan you where go.Q
Milan, where are you going?


(ii) a. Dongbae-ya, meo hae?
Dongbae-VOCPART what do
What are you doing, Dongbae?
b. Dongbae, meo hae?
Dongbae what do
What are you doing, Dongbae?


7.

Arabic is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases must have the vocative particle yā.


(i) yaa Muhammad!
VOCPART Muhammad
Hey, Muhammad!


4.

Umbundu is “no” for this property. Proper names in vocative phrases must have the vocative prefix –a, that is obligatory “for nouns with [+human] features” (Hill 2007: 2082; ex 7a).


(i) Epa a Pedro, enda pi?
You-SG.FAM you.HUM Pedro go.2S where
Pedro, man, where do you go?

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Akan-twi No AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: mu̍kɔ̀ ó jī o̍
  Gloss: Moko o come o
  Translation: Hey Moko, come!
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
   English Yes the property authors
   Faroese Yes Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   French Yes Hilda Koopman
   Greek Yes Dimitris Michelioudakis optional vocative particles (e.g. 'ε', (rare/archaic) 'o')
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas No examples in the textual record.
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Italian Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Korean Yes Shin-Sook Kim
   Latin Not Yet Set Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Ewe Mary ! Itsa ano!
  Gloss: You Mary! Come here!
  Comment: Like singular count nouns, this is only applicable to initial vocative phrases. The unmarked pronoun ‘ you ’ precedes the proper name.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian Yes Nina Radkevich
   Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: o dʒuva, kə pu mənə a lu merkatə?
  Gloss: hey Giova that can come.3SG to the.SG.M market.SG.M
  Translation: ‘Hey Giova, can you come to the market?’
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Sozen Ozkan
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa Yes Xiujie Ma