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w22b Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases must have an article

Definition
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    Plural nouns in vocative phrases

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are five property definitions for singular count nouns in vocative phrases:

    can be bare, must have an article, can have an article, must have a special vocative marker, can have a special vocative marker


w22b: Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases must have an article


This property is set to "yes" if an unmodified morphologically pluralcount noun in a vocative phrase must:

  1. occur with
    1. an “article” (or, if the language doesn’t have article, a phonologically weak, deictically unmarked demonstrative)
    2. a partitive-like item (en. some, fr. des, …)
  2. (for languages without articles but with classifiers, noun classes, case, adpositional endings…) exhibits no structural alternation with noun phrases containing a definite plural noun modified by an adjective.


Elicitation Contexts

_________ ladies! Please, come here!
I am sorry, _________ men, I cannot answer your question.


Additional instructions

  1. The plural (count) noun must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements ...)
  2. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. Proper names of people (Americans! Listen to me!)

Examples

1.

Basque is “yes” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases must have an article (Artiagoitia 2012: 36, ex 33b).


(i) zatozte hona, mutilak
come here boy.ART.PL
come here, boys!


They cannot be bare.


(ii) *zatozte hona, mutil
come here boy
Intended: come here, boys!


2.

English is “no” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can be bare.


(i)     Thank you, ladies!
(ii)    I’m afraid, girls, that your grammar leaks
(iii)   come here, boys!


3.

Italian is “no” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can be bare.


(i) ragazzi, passami la palla!
boys pass.to.me the ball
boys, pass me the ball!

(ii) come state, amici?
how stay.2P friends
how are you, friends?


4.

French is “no” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can be bare (Coene et al. 1999: ex 26).


(i) amis, partons tout de suite
friends leave.IMP.1P all of the rest
friends! Let’s leave straight away!


5.

Rumanian is “no” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases never occur with an article.


(i) oameni, veniti aici!
people.PL come.2P here
folks, come here!


6.

Catalan is “no” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases never occur with an article (Espinal 2011: 3 ex. 8e and 8b).


(i) *eh uns companys!
VOCPART a.PL guys
Intended:Hey guys!

(ii) eh companys!
VOCPART guys
Hey guys

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Akan-twi No AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   English No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   French Yes Hilda Koopman
   French (Ivorian) Yes Akpoué Josué
   Greek No Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Greek (Calabria) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: Shim'u zo't hazzeqenim (Joel 1,2)
  Gloss: hear.IMP this.PRON old men.ART-VOC
  Translation: Hear this, ye old men
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Italian No Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Korean No Shin-Sook Kim
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian No Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Nina Radkevich
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Sozen Ozkan
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma