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w22c Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have an article

Definition
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    Plural nouns in vocative phrases

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are five property definitions for singular count nouns in vocative phrases:

    can be bare, must have an article, can have an article, must have a special vocative marker, can have a special vocative marker


w22c: Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have an article


This property is set to "yes" if an unmodified morphologically plural count noun in a vocative phrase can:

  1. occur with
    1. an “article” (or, if the language doesn’t have article, a phonologically weak, deictically unmarked demonstrative)
    2. a partitive-like item (en. some, fr. des, …)
  2. (for languages without articles but with classifiers, noun classes, case, adpositional endings…) exhibits no structural alternation with noun phrases containing a definite plural noun modified by an adjective.



Elicitation Contexts

_________ ladies! Please, come here!
I am sorry, _________ men, I cannot answer your question.


Additional instructions

  1. The plural (count) noun must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements ...)
  2. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. Proper names of people (Americans! Listen to me!)

Examples

1.

French is “yes” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can (and in some cases must) have an article.


(i) allons, les amis
let's go the friends
let’s go, friends!


They can also be bare.


(ii) amis, partons tout de suite
friends leave.IMP.1P all of the rest
friends! Let’s leave straight away!


2.

Rumanian is “yes” for this property. Plural (count) noun in vocative phrases can have an article, that usually occurs with the vocative marker –lor.


(i) oamenilor, veniti aici!
people.PL.ART.VOC come.2P here
folks, come here!

They can also be bare.


(ii) oameni, veniti aici!
people.PL come.2P here
folks, come here!


3.

English is “no” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases cannot have an article.


(i)     *thank you, the ladies!
(ii)    *I’m afraid, the girls, that your grammar leaks
(iii)   *come here, the boys!


4.

Catalan is “no” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases cannot have an article (Espinal 2011: 3 ex. 8e).


(i) *eh uns companys!
VOCPART a.PL guys
Intended:Hey guys!


(ii) eh companys!
VOCPART guys
Hey guys!


5.

Basque is “no” for this property. All plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases require an article (Artiagoitia 2012: 36, ex 33b).


(i) zatozte hona, mutilak
come here boy.ART.PL
come here, boys!


They cannot be bare.


(ii) *zatozte hona, mutil
come here boy
Intended: come here, boys!

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Akan-twi No AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: nei gei wai neoisi, ceng gwolei
  Gloss: this several CLF lady please come-here
  Translation: lit. *These/The ladies, please come here.
  Comment: Not sure.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   English No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   French No Hilda Koopman
   French (Ivorian) No Akpoué Josué
   Greek No Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Greek (Calabria) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo "The person that is addressed (vocative), since it is always determinate, should always have the article; in fact the article is often omitted, especially in poetry or in loft prose. O sons never has the article" (Muraoka)
   Italian No Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Korean No Shin-Sook Kim
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Nina Radkevich
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Sozen Ozkan
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma