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w22d Plural (count) nuns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker

Definition
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    Plural nouns in vocative phrases

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are five property definitions for singular count nouns in vocative phrases:

    can be bare, must have an article, can have an article, must have a special vocative marker, can have a special vocative marker


w22d: Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker


This property is set to "yes" if an unmodified morphologically plural noun in a vocative phrase must occur with a special vocative marker.



Elicitation Contexts

_________ ladies! Please, come here!
I am sorry, _________ men, I cannot answer your question.


Additional instructions

  1. The plural (count) noun must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements ...)
  2. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. Proper names of people (Americans! Listen to me!)

Examples

1.

Arabic is “yes” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocatives phrases must have a vocative particle. The most frequently used is .


(i) a. yaa, sayydaatu!
VOCPART lady.PL
Hey, ladies!
b. *sayydaatu!
lady.PL
Intended:Hey, ladies!


2.

English is “no” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can occur without any special vocative marker.


(i)     boys, pass me the ball!


3.

Italian is “no” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can occur without any special vocative marker.


(i) ragazzi, passatemi la palla!
boys pass.to.me the ball
boys, pass me the ball!


4.

Romanian is “no” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can occur without any special vocative marker.


(i) băieti veniti aici!
boy.PL come.2P here
boys, come here!

[ More examples]

5.

Basque is “no” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases occur without any special vocative marker (Artiagoitia 2012: 36).


(i) zatozte hona, mutilak
come here boy.ART.PL
come here, boys!

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Akan-twi No AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
   Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   English No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   French No Hilda Koopman
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Greek Yes Dimitris Michelioudakis obligatory case morphology
   Greek (Calabria) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo "The person that is addressed (vocative), since it is always determinate, should always have the article; in fact the article is often omitted, especially in poetry or in loft prose. O sons never has the article" (Muraoka)
   Italian No Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Korean No Shin-Sook Kim
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian No Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Nina Radkevich
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Sozen Ozkan
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma