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w22e Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker

Definition
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    Plural count nouns in vocative phrases

    To code for all possibilities, and for ease of the task, there are five property definitions for singular count nouns in vocative phrases:

    can be bare, must have an article, can have an article, must have a special vocative marker, can have a special vocative marker


w22e: Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker


This property is set to "yes" if an unmodified morphologicallycount plural in a vocative phrase can occur with a special vocative marker.



Elicitation Contexts

_________ ladies! Please, come here!
I am sorry, _________ men, I cannot answer your question.


Additional instructions

  1. The plural (count) noun must be unmodified (no quantifiers, no adjectives, no possessors, no relative clauses, no adpositional complements ...)
  2. The following classes of nouns should NOT be considered when checking this property:
    1. Proper names of people (Americans! Listen to me!)

Examples

1.

English is “yes” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have the vocative marker hey.


(i)     hey boys, pass me the ball!


They can also occur bare.


(ii)    boys, pass me the ball!


2.

Italian is “yes” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have the vocative particle hei (or o, in literary styles).


(i) a. hei ragazzi, passatemi la palla!
VOCPART boys pass.to.me the ball
Hey boys, pass me the ball!
b. vi riconosco, miei simili o mostri della terra
to.you recognize my.M.P mates VOCPART monsters of.the earth
I recognize you as my mates, o monsters of the Earth
(S. Quasimodo, “Giorno dopo giorno”, vv. 2f3)


They can also occur with no special vocative marker.


(ii) ragazzi, passatemi la palla!
boys pass.to.me the ball
boys, pass me the ball!


3.

Rumanian is “yes” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases have the special plural vocative marker –lor.


(i) fetelor veniti aici!
girl.PL.ART.VOC come.2P here
girls, come here!

[ More examples]

They can also occur without any special vocative marker.


(iv) băieti veniti aici!
boy.PL come.2P here
boys, come here!

[ More examples]

4.

Catalan is “yes” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker (Espinal 2011: 3 ex. 8e and 8b).


(i) eh companys!
VOCPART guys
Hey guys!


5.

Basque is “no” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases occur without any special vocative marker (Artiagoitia 2012: 36).


(i) zatozte hona, mutilak
come here boy.ART.PL
come here, boys!

Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Akan-twi No AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: wɛ̰́nɛ̰́ ó: ā jɪ̄ dā
  Gloss: woman.pl o you.PL come here
  Translation: women! come here
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
   English Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Faroese Yes Hjalmar Páll Petersen Set mjólkina í køliskápið 'Put the milk-the-ACC in the fridge!'
   French Yes Hilda Koopman
   Greek Yes Dimitris Michelioudakis optional vocative particles (e.g. 'ε', (rare/archaic) 'o')
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas No examples in the textual record.
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo "The person that is addressed (vocative), since it is always determinate, should always have the article; in fact the article is often omitted, especially in poetry or in loft prose. O sons never has the article" (Muraoka)
   Italian Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Korean Yes Shin-Sook Kim
   Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Nina Radkevich
   Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: o wajə, passatəmə ssa pallə!
  Gloss: hey kid.PL.M give3PL.me that.SG.F ball.SG.F
  Translation: ‘Hey kids, give me that ball!’
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Turkish No Sozen Ozkan
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa Yes Xiujie Ma