w22e: Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker
_________ ladies! Please, come here! I am sorry, _________ men, I cannot answer your question.
English is “yes” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have the vocative marker hey.
(i) hey boys, pass me the ball!
They can also occur bare.
(ii) boys, pass me the ball!
Italian is “yes” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have the vocative particle hei (or o, in literary styles).
They can also occur with no special vocative marker.
Rumanian is “yes” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases have the special plural vocative marker –lor.
They can also occur without any special vocative marker.
Catalan is “yes” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker (Espinal 2011: 3 ex. 8e and 8b).
Basque is “no” for this property. Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases occur without any special vocative marker (Artiagoitia 2012: 36).
|Contributed by: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman|
|Basaa||Yes||Paul Roger Bassong|
|Calabrian (Northern)||Yes||Giuseppina Silvestri|
|Cantonese (Guangzhou)||No||Zixian Qiu|
|Cypriot Greek||Yes||Marios Andreou|
|Dida Lakota (diéko)||Yes||Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby|
|English||Yes||Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman|
|Faroese||Yes||Hjalmar Páll Petersen||Set mjólkina í køliskápið 'Put the milk-the-ACC in the fridge!'|
|Greek||Yes||Dimitris Michelioudakis||optional vocative particles (e.g. 'ε', (rare/archaic) 'o')|
|Greek (Calabria)||Yes||Cristina Guardiano|
|Greek (Cappadocian)||Yes||Petros Karatsareas||No examples in the textual record.|
|Hebrew (Biblical)||No||Massimo Gargiulo||"The person that is addressed (vocative), since it is always determinate, should always have the article; in fact the article is often omitted, especially in poetry or in loft prose. O sons never has the article" (Muraoka)|
|Italian (Reggiano)||Yes||Giovanni Roversi|
|Portuguese||Yes||Fabricio M. F. Gerardi|
|Romanian||Yes||Monica Alexandrina Irimia|
|Wuhu Chinese||Yes||Zhuo Chen|